Indexed on: 03 Aug '20Published on: 29 Jul '20Published in: Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)
Perceptron is an essential element in neural network (NN)-based machine learning, however, the effectiveness of various implementations by circuits is rarely demonstrated from chip testing. This paper presents the measured silicon results for the analog perceptron circuits fabricated in a 0.6 μm/±2.5 V complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process, which are comprised of digital-to-analog converter (DAC)-based multipliers and phase shifters. The results from the measurement convinces us that our implementation attains the correct function and good performance. Furthermore, we propose the multi-layer perceptron (MLP) by utilizing analog perceptron where the structure and neurons as well as weights can be flexibly configured. The example given is to design a 2-3-4 MLP circuit with rectified linear unit (ReLU) activation, which consists of 2 input neurons, 3 hidden neurons, and 4 output neurons. Its experimental case shows that the simulated performance achieves a power dissipation of 200 mW, a range of working frequency from 0 to 1 MHz, and an error ratio within 12.7%. Finally, to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of our analog perceptron for configuring a MLP, seven more analog-based MLPs designed with the same approach are used to analyze the simulation results with respect to various specifications, in which two cases are used to compare to their digital counterparts with the same structures.