Indexed on: 01 Feb '11Published on: 01 Feb '11Published in: Analytica Chimica Acta
A polymeric ionic liquid (PIL) poly(1-vinyl-3-hexylimidazolium chloride) (poly(ViHIm(+)Cl⁻)) was designed as a coating material for solid phase microextraction (SPME) to extract polar compounds including volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and alcohols. The extracted analytes were analyzed by using gas chromatography (GC) coupled with flame ionization detection (FID). Extraction parameters of the HS-SPME-GC-FID method, such as ionic strength, extraction temperature, pH and extraction time were optimized. Calibration studies were carried out under the optimized conditions to further evaluate the performance of the PIL-based SPME coating. For comparison purposes, the PIL poly(1-vinyl-3-hexylimidazolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide) (poly(ViHIm(+)NTf₂⁻)) was also used as the SPME coating to extract the same analytes. The results showed that the poly(ViHIm(+)Cl⁻) PIL coating had higher selectivity towards more polar analytes due to the presence of the Cl⁻ anion which provides higher hydrogen bond basicity than the NTf₂⁻ anion. The limits of detection (LODs) determined by the designed poly(ViHIm(+)Cl⁻) PIL coating ranged from 0.02μgL⁻¹ for octanoic acid and decanoic acid and 7.5μgL⁻¹ for 2-nitrophenol, with precision values (as relative standard deviation) lower than 14%. The observed performance of the poly(ViHIm(+)Cl⁻) PIL coating was comparable to previously reported work in which commercial or novel materials were used as SPME coatings. The selectivity of the developed PIL coatings was also evaluated using heptane as the matrix solvent. This work demonstrates that the selectivity of PIL-based SPME coatings can be simply tuned by incorporating different counteranions to the sorbent coating.