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Role of 5-aminolevulinic acid in the formation of winter rape resistance to sulfonylurea herbicides

Research paper by N. G. Averina, E. L. Nedved’, R. A. Shcherbakov, I. V. Vershilovskaya, E. B. Yaronskaya

Indexed on: 21 Aug '14Published on: 21 Aug '14Published in: Russian Journal of Plant Physiology



Abstract

Growing of winter rape (Brassica napus L.) plants for 7–8 days in the presence of a sulfonylurea herbicide Magnum (methsulfuron methyl; 200 and 500 mg/L) exerted an organ-specific influence on the seedlings: suppressed hypocotyl and root growth and increased the accumulation of fresh weight of cotyledonary leaves. Exogenous 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA; 0.1, 1.0, and 10 mg/L) partially negated the adverse effect of Magnum on the length and fresh weight of roots and hypocotyls and stimulated the development of cotyledons. The herbicide suppressed the activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX). The addition of ALA to the 200 mg/L herbicide solution caused a steady activation of APX as compared with the effect of herbicide alone. In plants grown on Magnum solutions, the activity of glutathione reductase (GR) rose. Positive effect of exogenous ALA was only observed when 500 mg/L herbicide was used (Magnum-500 type of treatment). In plants grown on the Magnum solution, the content of reduced and oxidized forms of glutathione rose. In contrasty, exogenous ALA reduced the total content of glutathione but in this case the ratio between its reduced and oxidized forms rose. In the presence of the herbicide, the content of anthocyans considerably decreased and upon the addition of exogenous ALA their levels rose. In rape plants treated with Magnum, the ability to generate superoxide anion radical was essentially the same as in control plants; however, the content of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) therein rose. The addition of ALA to the herbicide reduced the ability to generate superoxide anion radical and the level of H2O2. The activity of acetolactate synthase remained on the control level when 200 mg/L Magnum was used, decreased in the plants of Magnum-500 treatment, and rose upon the addition of exogenous ALA to this type of treatment. It was concluded that ALA had a positive effect on the development of winter rape resistance to Magnum via stimulation of growth processes, activation of APX and GR, predominant elevation of the content of reduced glutathione and anthocyans, and partial recovery of acetolactate synthase activity, which on the whole caused a decrease in the H2O2 level and in the ability of plants to generate superoxide anion radical.