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Rogue waves in the two dimensional nonlocal nonlinear Schrödinger equation and nonlocal Klein-Gordon equation.

Research paper by Wei W Liu, Jing J Zhang, Xiliang X Li

Indexed on: 13 Feb '18Published on: 13 Feb '18Published in: PloS one



Abstract

In this paper, we investigate two types of nonlocal soliton equations with the parity-time (PT) symmetry, namely, a two dimensional nonlocal nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation and a coupled nonlocal Klein-Gordon equation. Solitons and periodic line waves as exact solutions of these two nonlocal equations are derived by employing the Hirota's bilinear method. Like the nonlocal NLS equation, these solutions may have singularities. However, by suitable constraints of parameters, nonsingular breather solutions are generated. Besides, by taking a long wave limit of these obtained soliton solutions, rogue wave solutions and semi-rational solutions are derived. For the two dimensional NLS equation, rogue wave solutions are line rogue waves, which arise from a constant background with a line profile and then disappear into the same background. The semi-rational solutions shows intriguing dynamical behaviours: line rogue wave and line breather arise from a constant background together and then disappear into the constant background again uniformly. For the coupled nonlocal Klein-Gordon equation, rogue waves are localized in both space and time, semi-rational solutions are composed of rogue waves, breathers and periodic line waves. These solutions are demonstrated analytically to exist for special classes of nonlocal equations relevant to optical waveguides.