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Risk of Periprosthetic Joint Infection in Patients With Multiple Arthroplasties.

Research paper by W Parker WP Abblitt, Emily W EW Chan, Andrew A AA Shinar

Indexed on: 14 Nov '17Published on: 14 Nov '17Published in: Journal of Arthroplasty



Abstract

Risk of subsequent periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) in a second prosthetic joint following initial PJI has been shown to be 19%-20%. We sought to identify (1) the risk of developing a second PJI for our patients with multiple prosthetic joints and (2) the effect of bacteremia on development of a subsequent PJI.We retrospectively reviewed all patients treated surgically for PJI by a single surgeon from 2003 to 2014. Time between initial and subsequent infection, bacteremia, and risk factors for PJI were identified.Of 167 patients treated for PJI, 76 had multiple prosthetic joints. Thirteen percent (10/76) developed a PJI in a second location. Excluding simultaneous infections, the rate was 8.3% (6/72), despite having a 57% incidence of immunosuppression, diabetes, renal failure, smoking, or steroid use. Average follow-up for patients with 1 PJI was 4.6 years (range 0.03-13.6). Seventy percent (7/10) of patients with multiple infections were bacteremic at the time of initial infection compared to 18.1% (12/66) of patients with a single infection (P = .0004). Excluding the 4 simultaneous infections (all bacteremic), the risk of developing an infection in a second joint was 20% if bacteremic and 5.2% if not bacteremic.Our study identified the risk of developing a subsequent PJI to be one half of previous studies. Bacteremia at the time of PJI is an important factor for developing subsequent PJI. Multiple prosthetic joints may be less hazardous than previously thought for patients with PJI suggesting that suppressive antibiotics may only be necessary in cases with bacteremia.