Indexed on: 23 Jun '07Published on: 23 Jun '07Published in: Journal of Clinical Nursing
The aims of the study were to describe the level of modifiable coronary risk factors and to explore the relationships among these risk factors in patients with coronary heart disease.Appropriate patient education and therapies for coronary risk reduction will prevent recurrent cardiac events and progression of coronary heart disease. Therefore, having knowledge of the risk profile of these patients is essential so that appropriate contents and focus of patient educations can be developed.Coronary heart disease patients admitted for cardiac catheterization at the two studied hospitals in Hong Kong were recruited for this study. Demographic date and risk factors of blood pressure, smoking status, body mass index, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and exercise level were collected from subjects as well as from medical records for analysis.The body mass index was significantly different among non-smoker, ex-smoker and smoker (p = 0.027). Non-smokers had the highest body mass index but smokers had the lowest body mass index among the three groups in this study. Physical inactivity, overweight and hypercholesterolaemia were the risk factors seen in about 50% of the studied subjects. Body mass index correlated positively with systolic blood pressure but negatively correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and hour of exercise.Heavier subjects had a higher systolic blood pressure but a lower level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Heavier subjects also exercised less. The study results provided additional information on the database of the risk profile among Hong Kong cardiac patients.Hypertension, obesity, physical inactivity, abnormal serum lipid levels and smoking are the modifiable risk factors for coronary heart diseases. As physical inactivity, overweight and hypercholesterolaemia were found in half of the studied subjects, the importance of risk factors control should be addressed to this group of patients. Nurses should be aware of their educator role to provide appropriate education to coronary heart disease patients with the focus on reducing and controlling of cardiac risk factors, which has been shown to be effective in reducing the progress of disease.