Risk Factors for Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis among Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis at the Central Chest Institute of Thailand.

Research paper by Charoen C Chuchottaworn, Vipa V Thanachartwet, Piamlarp P Sangsayunh, Thu Zar Myint TZ Than, Duangjai D Sahassananda, Manoon M Surabotsophon, Varunee V Desakorn

Indexed on: 09 Oct '15Published on: 09 Oct '15Published in: PloS one


There are limited data available on the risk factors for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Therefore, we here conducted a retrospective matched case-control study among adults with pulmonary TB who received treatment at the Central Chest Institute of Thailand (CCIT) between January 2007 and December 2013, in order to determine the risk factors associated with MDR-TB among patients with pulmonary TB. We identified 145 patients with pulmonary MDR-TB (cases) and 145 patients with drug-sensitive pulmonary TB (controls). Multivariate analysis identified the independent risk factors for MDR-TB as follows: (1) ≥ 2 episodes of prior pulmonary TB (odds ratio [OR] 39.72, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 7.86-200.66), (2) duration of illness > 60 days (OR 3.08, 95% CI 1.52-6.22), (3) sputum acid fast bacilli smear 3+ (OR 13.09, 95% CI 4.64-36.91), (4) presence of lung cavities (OR 3.82, 95% CI 1.89-7.73), and (5) presence of pleural effusion (OR 2.75, 95% CI 1.06-7.16). Prior pulmonary TB management with a non-category I regimen (P = 0.012) and having treatment failure or default as treatment outcomes (P = 0.036) were observed in a higher proportion among patients with MDR-TB. Particular characteristics of lung cavities, including the maximum diameter ≥ 30 mm (P < 0.001), the number of cavities ≥ 3 (P = 0.001), bilateral involvement (P < 0.001), and ≥ 2 lung zones involved (P = 0.001) were more commonly observed in patients with MDR-TB. In conclusion, these clinical factors and chest radiographic findings associated with MDR-TB among patients with pulmonary TB may help physicians to provide proper management of cases for prevention of the development and spread of MDR-TB in future.