Indexed on: 10 Nov '17Published on: 01 Sep '17Published in: Mutation Research - Reviews
Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (aka PARylation) is a unique protein post-translational modification (PTM) first described over 50 years ago. PARylation regulates a number of biological processes including chromatin remodeling, the DNA damage response (DDR), transcription, apoptosis, and mitosis. The subsequent discovery of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) catalyzing DNA-dependent PARylation spearheaded the field of DDR. The expanding knowledge about the poly ADP-ribose (PAR) recognition domains prompted the discovery of novel DDR factors and revealed crosstalk with other protein PTMs including phosphorylation, ubiquitination, methylation and acetylation. In this review, we highlight the current knowledge on PAR-regulated DDR, PAR recognition domain, and PARP inhibition in cancer therapy.