Indexed on: 29 May '13Published on: 29 May '13Published in: BMC Nephrology
Despite a confirmed association between restless legs syndrome (RLS) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD), there is no study on patients presenting with nephrotic syndrome (NS). To investigate the frequency of RLS and poor quality sleep in NS-patients secondary to primary glomerulopathy with nearly normal glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and its associated factors.Patients with NS, defined as 24 h-urine protein greater than 3.5 g/1.73 m2 and hypoalbuminemia, (n = 99, 53 women) and a mean age of 36±11 years were studied. Age and sex-matched controls were used to compare RLS and poor sleep quality prevalence. Standardized RLS questionnaire formulated by the International Restless Legs Syndrome and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were used.RLS was more frequent in NS-patients than in controls (22.8 vs. 4.0%, p = 0.01). Mean time since diagnosis (52.2±34.1 vs. 28.6±22.5 months, p < 0.01) and 24 h-proteinuria (3.7±1.3 vs. 2.6±0.6 g/1.73 m2, p = 0.001) were greater in NS-patients with RLS those not presenting RLS. Association between RLS with 24 h-proteinuria [OR = 2.31; p = 0.007; 95% CI 1.87-2.89] and time since diagnosis [OR = 1.10; p = 0.003; CI = 1.02-1.39] were identified even after controlling for age, GFR and diabetes. Sleep quality was poor in NS-patients than in controls (mean PSQI score 7.35±3.7 vs. 5.2±3.0, p = 0.003). In NS-patients, only RLS was associated with poor sleep quality (OR = 1.20; p = 0.004).Poor quality sleep and RLS are frequent in NS-patients without ESRD. Pathophysiology of this association must be further investigated.