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Reporter assay screens for protein targets in

Imported: 13 Feb '17 | Published: 18 Jan '11

Thomas J. Hosted, Scott Walker, Marvin Bayne

USPTO - Utility Patents

Abstract

The present invention comprises responsive promoters along with screening methods which make use of the promoters in order to identify anti-fungal substances.

Description

The present application claims the benefit of U.S. provisional patent application No. 60/609,940; filed Sep. 15, 2004; which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to compositions and methods for screening for compounds which modulate the function of an essential gene, for example, in fungal cells.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

High throughput assays, for identifying candidate compounds which inhibit one or more target proteins in an organism, are most efficient when they include an easily identifiable signal for identifying compounds with the desired inhibitory activity. One such well known system utilizes a responsive promoter, which is activated by the inactivation of the target by a candidate compound, and which is fused to an easily identifiable reporter. When the target protein is inactivated by a candidate compound, the reporter is expressed and the corresponding compound is identified as inhibitory. Such responsive promoters can be identified simply by identifying promoters which are activated by the genetic activation or inactivation of a target gene of interest (e.g., by construction of a temperature-sensitive mutation in the gene).

Responsive promoter screening assays have been used to identify anti-fungal compounds such as azoles which inhibit the egosterol biosynthesis pathway. U.S. Pat. No. 5,527,687; Dixon et al., J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 1997 June;62(2-3):165-71. In addition, screens have been developed to screen for inhibitors of protein secretion, membrane stability, protein synthesis and cell wall integrity. Bianchi et al., Appl Environ. Microbiol. 1999 November;65(11):5023-7; Alksne et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2000 June;44(6): 1418-27; Shapiro et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2002 August;46(8):2490-7; Sun et al., J. Antibiot. (Tokyo). 2002; 55(3): 279-287. These screens are convenient for high-throughput assay systems requiring short incubation times, sub-lethal compound concentrations and the selective induction of the reporter fusion indicates that the compound is perturbing the pathway of interest. Fischer et al., Genome Res. 2004 January;14(1):90-8.

Although some responsive promoters are known and they have been used to identify anti-microbial substances, there still exists a need in the art for the identification of new responsive promoters which may be used to identify other substances of clinical interest.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention addresses the need in the art for additional responsive promoters for use in assays to identify novel anti-fungal and anti-cancer substances.

The present invention provides an isolated hybrid polynucleotide comprising a member selected from the group consisting of S. cerevisiae YOR387C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YMR175W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YFR026C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YJL153C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YPL033C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YOL058W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YOR255W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YDR250C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YDR446W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YDR536W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YOR255W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YDL243C Promoter S. cerevisiae YDR256C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YFL020C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YPL205C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YGL205W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YGL117W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YHR029C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YML116W Promoter S. cerevisiae YJR109C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YCL030C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YLR338W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YIL066W-A Promoter, S. cerevisiae YNL093W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YLR381W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YKL159C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YIL058W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YKR037C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YNL279W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YOR032C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YML058W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YMR303C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YJL153C Promoter S. cerevisiae YLR092W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YFL052W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YLR017C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YLL062C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YMR323W Promoter S. cerevisiae YPL171C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YER065C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YDR114C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YHR082C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YDL126C Promoter S. cerevisiae YBR106W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YLL043W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YPR108W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YIL041W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YJL166W Promoter S. cerevisiae YDR165W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YLR330W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YDL058W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YHR012W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YKL053W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YKL196C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YDL103C Promoter S. cerevisiae YLR427W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YLL020C Promoter and S. cerevisiae YBL065W Promoter (e.g., SEQ ID NOs: 1-41, 52-68); optionally operably linked to a reporter (e.g., S. cerevisiae ADE2, S. cerevisiae LYS2, S. cerevisiae TRP1, S. cerevisiae LEU2, S. cerevisiae URA3, S. cerevisiae HIS3, Aequorea victoria GFP mutant 3, Renilla luciferase, Photinus pyralis luciferase, Photinus pyralis luciferase slk mutant, Vibrio fischeri luxA, Vibrio fischeri luxB, Vibrio fischeri luxC, Vibrio fischeri luxD, Vibrio fischeri luxE, Vibrio fischeri luxAB, Vibrio fischeri luxCDABE, Vibrio harveyi luxA, Vibrio harveyi luxB, Vibrio harveyi luxC, Vibrio harveyi luxD, Vibrio harveyi luxE, Vibrio harveyi luxAB, Vibrio harveyi luxCDABE, Photorhabdus luminscens LuxA, Photorhabdus luminscens LuxB, Photorhabdus luminscens LuxC, Photorhabdus luminscens LuxD, Photorhabdus luminscens LuxE, Photorhabdus luminscens LuxCDABE, E. coli lacZ, the Aequorea victoria Aequorin gene, KanMX, pat1, nat1, hph, CAT, Sh Ble, GUS, CYH2 or CAN1 (e.g., SEQ ID NOs: 42-51)). Also within the scope of the invention is an embodiment comprising one of the foregoing promoters, operably linked to a reporter with the proviso that the reporter is not the open reading frame that is naturally located downstream of the promoter in the S. cerevisiae genome. An embodiment of the invention comprises a vector comprising a promoter of the present invention or hybrid thereof along with a host cell comprising the vector. In another embodiment of the invention, the vector in the host cell is episomal or integrated into a chromosome of the host cell.

The present invention also provides the isolated plasmids pSPRT47; pSPRT50; pSPRT190 and pSPRT192 (SEQ ID NOs.:85-88).

The present invention also provides a method for identifying a substance that inhibits fungal cell growth comprising (a) introducing a hybrid comprising a promoter selected from the group consisting of S. cerevisiae YOR387C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YMR175W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YFR026C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YJL153C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YPL033C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YOL058W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YOR255W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YDR250C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YDR446W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YDR536W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YOR255W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YDL243C Promoter S. cerevisiae YDR256C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YFL020C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YPL205C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YGL205W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YGL117W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YHR029C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YML116W Promoter S. cerevisiae YJR109C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YCL030C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YLR338W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YEL066W-A Promoter, S. cerevisiae YNL093W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YLR381W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YKL159C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YIL058W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YKR037C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YNL279W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YOR032C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YML058W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YMR303C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YJL153C Promoter S. cerevisiae YLR092W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YFL052W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YIR017C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YLL062C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YMR323W Promoter S. cerevisiae YPL171C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YER065C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YDR114C Promoter and S. cerevisiae YBL065W Promoter (e.g., SEQ ID NOs: 1-41 or 68) operably linked to a reporter (e.g., S. cerevisiae ADE2, S. cerevisiae LYS2, S. cerevisiae TRP1, S. cerevisiae LEU2, S. cerevisiae URA3, S. cerevisiae HIS3, Aequorea victoria GFP mutant 3, Renilla luciferase, Photinus pyralis luciferase, Photinus pyralis luciferase slk mutant, Vibrio fischeri luxA, Vibrio fischeri luxB, Vibrio fischeri luxC, Vibrio fischeriluxD, Vibrio fischeri luxE, Vibrio fischeri luxAB, Vibrio fischeri luxCDABE, Vibrio harveyi luxA, Vibrio harveyi luxB, Vibrio harveyi luxC, Vibrio harveyi luxD, Vibrio harveyi luxE, Vibrio harveyi luxAB, Vibrio harveyi luxCDABE, Photorhabdus luminscens LuxA, Photorhabdus luminscens LuxB, Photorhabdus luminscens LuxC, Photorhabdus luminscens LuxD, Photorhabdus luminscens LuxE, Photorhabdus luminscens LuxCDABE, E. coli lacZ, the Aequorea victoria Aequorin gene, KanMX, pat1, nat1, hph, CAT, Sh Ble, GUS, CYH2 or CAN1 (e.g., SEQ ID NOs: 42-51)) into a suitable fungal cell (e.g., Absidia corymbifera; Absidia spp; Acremonium spp; Ajellomyces capsulatus; Ajellomyces dermatitidis; Alternaria spp; Aphanoascus fulvescens; Apophysomyces spp; Arthroderma benhamiae; Arthroderma fulvum; Arthroderma gypseum; Arthroderma incurvatum; Arthroderma otae; Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii; Aspergillus flavus; Aspergillus fumigatus; Aspergillus glaucus; Aspergillus nidulans; Aspergillus niger; Aspergillus oryzae; Aspergillus spp; Aspergillus sydowi; Aspergillus terreus; Aspergillus ustus; Aspergillus versicolor; Aureobasidium pullulans; Basidiomycetes; Beauveria spp; Bipolaris hawaiiensis; Bipolaris spicifera; Bipolaris spp; Bjerkandera adusta; Blastomyces dermatitidis; Blastoschizomyces capitatus; Candida albicans; Candida beigelii; Candida colluculosa; Candida dubliniensis; Candida dubliniensis; Candida famata; Candida famata; Candida glabrata; Candida guilliermondii; Candida haemulonii; Candida holmii; Candida inconspicua; Candida intermedia; Candida keyfyr; Candida krusei; Candida krusei; Candida lambica; Candida lipolytica; Candida lusitaniae; Candida maris; Candida melibiosica; Candida norvegensis; Candida parapsilosis; Candida parapsilosis; Candida pelliculosa; Candida pelliculosa; Candida pseudotropicalis; Candida pulcherrima; Candida rugosa; Candida sake; Candida sphaerica; Candida spp; Candida stellatoidea; Candida tropicalis; Candida tropicalis; Candida viswanathii; Candida zeylanoides; Chrysosporium spp; Cladophialophora bantiana; Cladophialophora carrionii; Cladosporium spp; Coccidioides immitis; Cokeromyces recurvatus; Coprinus spp; Cryptococcus albidus; Cryptococcus gattii; Cryptococcus laurentii; Cryptococcus neoformans; Cunninghamella bertholletiae; Cunninghamella spp; Curvularia lunata; Curvularia spp; Dekkera bruxellensis; Epidermophyton floccosum; Epidermophyton floccosum; Exophiala dermatitidis; Exophiala jeanselmei; Exophiala moniliae; Exserohilum rostratum; Filobasidiella neoformans; Fonsecaea pedrosoi; Fusarium dimerum; Fusarium moniliforme; Fusarium oxysporum; Fusarium proliferatum; Fusarium solani; Fusarium spp; Geotrichum candidum; Geotrichum spp; Histoplasma capsulatum; Hortaea werneckii; Issatschenkia orientalis; Kluveromyces lactis; Kluyveromyces marxianus; Madurella grisae; Malassezia furfur; Malassezia globosa; Malassezia obtusa; Malassezia pachydermatis; Malassezia restricta; Malassezia slooffiae; Malassezia sympodialis; Metarrhizium anisopliae; Microsporum audouinii; Microsporum canis; Microsporum fulvum; Microsporum gypseum; Microsporum persicolor; Mucor circinelloides; Mucor hiemalis; Mucor racemosus; Mucor rouxii; Mucor spp; Nattrassia mangiferae; Nectria haematococca; Onychocola canadensis; Paecilomyces lilacinus; Paecilomyces spp; Paecilomyces variotii; Paracoccidioides brasiliensis; Penicillium marneffei; Penicillium spp; Phialophora spp; Phialophora verrucosa; Phoma spp; Pichia anomala; Pichia etchellsii; Pichia guilliermondii; Pichia ohmeri; Pithomyces spp; Pneumocystis carinii; Pseudallescheria boydii; Ramichloridium obovoideum; Rhizomucor miehei; Rhizomucor pusillus; Rhizomucor spp; Rhizopus arrhizus; Rhizopus microsporus; Rhizopus oryzae; Rhizopus schipperae; Rhizopus spp; Rhodotorula mucilaginosa; Rhodotorula rubra; Rhodotorula spp; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Saccharomyces spp; Sagrahamala spp; Saksenaea vasiformis; Scedosporium apiospermum; Scedosporium prolificans; Schizophyllum commune; Schizosaccharomyces pombe; Scopulariopsis brevicaulis; Scytalidium dimidiatum Ulocladium spp; Sporobolomyces spp; Sporothrix schenckii; Trichoderma spp; Trichophyton krajdenii; Trichophyton mentagrophytes; Trichophyton raubitschekii; Trichophyton rubrum; Trichophyton soudanense; Trichophyton spp; Trichophyton terrestre; Trichophyton tonsurans; Trichophyton verrucosum; Trichophyton violaceum; Trichosporon asahii; Trichosporon beigelii; Trichosporon capitatum; Trichosporon cutaneum; Trichosporon inkin; Trichosporon mucoides; Trichosporon spp; Tritirachium spp; Wangiella dermatitidis and Yarrowia lipolytica); (b) contacting the cell with a substance to be tested for the ability to inhibit fungal cell growth; (c) detecting expression driven by the promoter or signal from the reporter in the hybrid; (d) selecting the substance if it modulates expression from the promoter or signal from the reporter. In an embodiment of the invention, the method is carried out along with a negative-control comprising (i) introducing the hybrid into a suitable fungal cell; (ii) contacting the cell with a blank substance which is known to not modulate expression from the promoter or signal from the reporter in the hybrid; and (iii) detecting expression driven by the promoter or signal from the reporter in the hybrid; and (iv) comparing the expression level from the promoter or signal from the reporter in the cell contacted with the blank substance with the expression level from the promoter or the signal from the reporter in the cell contacted with the substance to be tested for the ability to inhibit fungal cell growth. Embodiments of the invention also include methods wherein a positive-control is carried out comprising (i) introducing the hybrid into a suitable fungal cell; (ii) contacting the cell with a positive-control which is known to modulate expression from the promoter or signal from the reporter in the hybrid; (iii) detecting expression driven by the promoter or signal from the reporter in the hybrid; and (iv) comparing the expression level from the promoter or signal from the reporter in the cell contacted with the positive-control substance with the expression level from the promoter or signal from the reporter in the cell contacted with the substance to be tested for the ability to inhibit fungal cell growth.

The present invention further comprises a method for identifying a substance that inhibits fungal cell growth comprising (a) introducing, into a suitable fungal cell (e.g., Absidia corymbifera; Absidia spp; Acremonium spp; Ajellomyces capsulatus; Ajellomyces dermatitidis; Alternaria spp; Aphanoascus fulvescens; Apophysomyces spp; Arthroderma benhamiae; Arthroderma fulvum; Arthroderma gypseum; Arthroderma incurvatum; Arthroderma otae; Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii; Aspergillus flavus; Aspergillus fumigatus; Aspergillus glaucus; Aspergillus nidulans; Aspergillus niger; Aspergillus oryzae; Aspergillus spp; Aspergillus sydowi; Aspergillus terreus; Aspergillus ustus; Aspergillus versicolor; Aureobasidium pullulans; Basidiomycetes; Beauveria spp; Bipolaris hawaiiensis; Bipolaris spicifera; Bipolaris spp; Bjerkandera adusta; Blastomyces dermatitidis; Blastoschizomyces capitatus; Candida albicans; Candida beigelii; Candida colluculosa; Candida dubliniensis; Candida dubliniensis; Candida famata; Candida famata; Candida glabrata; Candida guilliermondii; Candida haemulonii; Candida holmii; Candida inconspicua; Candida intermedia; Candida keyfyr; Candida krusei; Candida krusei; Candida lambica; Candida lipolytica; Candida lusitaniae; Candida maris; Candida melibiosica; Candida norvegensis; Candida parapsilosis; Candida parapsilosis; Candida pelliculosa; Candida pelliculosa; Candida pseudotropicalis; Candida pulcherrima; Candida rugosa; Candida sake; Candida sphaerica; Candida spp; Candida stellatoidea; Candida tropicalis; Candida tropicalis; Candida viswanathii; Candida zeylanoides; Chrysosporium spp; Cladophialophora bantiana; Cladophialophora carrionii; Cladosporium spp; Coccidioides immitis; Cokeromyces recurvatus; Coprinus spp; Cryptococcus albidus; Cryptococcus gattii; Cryptococcus laurentii; Cryptococcus neoformans; Cunninghamella bertholletiae; Cunninghamella spp; Curvularia lunata; Curvularia spp; Dekkera bruxellensis; Epidermophyton floccosum; Epidermophyton floccosum; Exophiala dermatitidis; Exophiala jeanselmei; Exophiala moniliae; Exserohilum rostratum; Filobasidiella neoformans; Fonsecaea pedrosoi; Fusarium dimerum; Fusarium moniliforme; Fusarium oxysporum; Fusarium proliferatum; Fusarium solani; Fusarium spp; Geotrichum candidum; Geotrichum spp; Histoplasma capsulatum; Hortaea werneckii; Issatschenkia orientalis; Kluveromyces lactis; Kluyveromyces marxianus; Madurella grisae; Malassezia furfur; Malassezia globosa; Malassezia obtusa; Malassezia pachydermatis; Malassezia restricta; Malassezia slooffiae; Malassezia sympodialis; Metarrhizium anisopliae; Microsporum audouinii; Microsporum canis; Microsporum fulvum; Microsporum gypseum; Microsporum persicolor; Mucor circinelloides; Mucor hiemalis; Mucor racemosus; Mucor rouxii; Mucor spp; Nattrassia mangiferae; Nectria haematococca; Onychocola canadensis; Paecilomyces lilacinus; Paecilomyces spp; Paecilomyces variotii; Paracoccidioides brasiliensis; Penicillium marneffei; Penicillium spp; Phialophora spp; Phialophora verrucosa; Phoma spp; Pichia anomala; Pichia etchellsii; Pichia guilliermondii; Pichia ohmeri; Pithomyces spp; Pneumocystis carinii; Pseudallescheria boydii; Ramichloridium obovoideum; Rhizomucor miehei; Rhizomucor pusillus; Rhizomucor spp; Rhizopus arrhizus; Rhizopus microsporus; Rhizopus oryzae; Rhizopus schipperae; Rhizopus spp; Rhodotorula mucilaginosa; Rhodotorula rubra; Rhodotorula spp; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Saccharomyces spp; Sagrahamala spp; Saksenaea vasiformis; Scedosporium apiospermum; Scedosporium prolificans; Schizophyllum commune; Schizosaccharomyces pombe; Scopulariopsis brevicaulis; Scytalidium dimidiatum Ulocladium spp; Sporobolomyces spp; Sporothrix schenckii; Trichoderma spp; Trichophyton krajdenii; Trichophyton mentagrophytes; Trichophyton raubitschekii; Trichophyton rubrum; Trichophyton soudanense; Trichophyton spp; Trichophyton terrestre; Trichophyton tonsurans; Trichophyton verrucosum; Trichophyton violaceum; Trichosporon asahii; Trichosporon beigelii; Trichosporon capitatum; Trichosporon cutaneum; Trichosporon inkin; Trichosporon mucoides; Trichosporon spp; Tritirachium spp; Wangiella dermatitidis or Yarrowia lipolytica), a first hybrid comprising a first promoter selected from the group consisting of S. cerevisiae YOR387C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YMR175W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YFR026C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YJL153C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YPL033C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YOL058W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YOR255W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YDR250C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YDR446W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YDR536W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YOR255W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YDL243C Promoter S. cerevisiae YDR256C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YFL020C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YPL205C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YGL205W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YGL117W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YHR029C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YML116W Promoter S. cerevisiae YJR109C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YCL030C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YLR338W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YIL066W-A Promoter, S. cerevisiae YNL093W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YLR381W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YKL159C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YIL058W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YKR037C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YNL279W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YOR032C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YML058W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YMR303C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YJL153C Promoter S. cerevisiae YLR092W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YFL052W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YIR117C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YLL062C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YMR323W Promoter S. cerevisiae YPL171C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YER065C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YDR114C Promoter and S. cerevisiae YBL065W Promoter (e.g., SEQ ID NOs: 1-41 or 68); operably linked to a first reporter (e.g., S. cerevisiae ADE2, S. cerevisiae LYS2, S. cerevisiae TRP1, S. cerevisiae LEU2, S. cerevisiae URA3, S. cerevisiae HIS3, Aequorea victoria GFP mutant 3, Renilla luciferase, Photinus pyralis luciferase, Photinus pyralis luciferase slk mutant, Vibrio fischeri luxA, Vibrio fischeri luxB, Vibrio fischeri luxC, Vibrio fischeri luxD, Vibrio fischeri luxE, Vibrio fischeri luxAB, Vibrio fischeri luxCDABE, Vibrio harveyi luxA, Vibrio harveyi luxB, Vibrio harveyi luxC, Vibrio harveyi luxD, Vibrio harveyi luxE, Vibrio harveyi luxAB, Vibrio harveyi luxCDABE, Photorhabdus luminscens LuxA, Photorhabdus luminscens LuxB, Photorhabdus luminscens LuxC, Photorhabdus luminscens LuxD, Photorhabdus luminscens LuxE, Photorhabdus luminscens LuxCDABE, E. coli lacZ, the Aequorea victoria Aequorin gene, KanMX, pat1, nat1, hph, CAT, Sh Ble, GUS, CYH2 or CAN1 (e.g., SEQ ID NOs: 42-51 )); and a second hybrid comprising a second promoter selected from the group consisting of: S. cerevisiae YHR082C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YDL126C Promoter S. cerevisiae YBR106W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YLL043W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YPR108W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YIL041W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YJL166W Promroter S. cerevisiae YDR 165W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YLR330W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YDL058W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YHR012W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YKL053W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YKL196C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YDL103C Promoter S. cerevisiae YLR427W Promoter and S. cerevisiae YLL020C Promoter (e.g., SEQ ID NOs: 52-67); operably linked to a second reporter (e.g., S. cerevisiae ADE2, S. cerevisiae LYS2, S. cerevisiae TRP1, S. cerevisiae LEU2, S. cerevisiae URA3, S. cerevisiae HIS3, Aequorea victoria GFP mutant 3, Renilla luciferase, Photinus pyralis luciferase, Photinus pyralis luciferase slk mutant, Vibrio fischeri luxA, Vibrio fischeri luxB, Vibrio fischeri luxC, Vibrio fischeri luxD, Vibrio fischeri luxE, Vibrio fischeri luxAB, Vibrio fischeri luxCDABE, Vibrio harveyi luxA, Vibrio harveyi luxB, Vibrio harveyi luxC, Vibrio harveyi luxD, Vibrio harveyi luxE, Vibrio harveyi luxAB, Vibrio harveyi luxCDABE, Photorhabdus luminscens LuxA, Photorhabdus luminscens LuxB, Photorhabdus luminscens LuxC, Photorhabdus luminscens LuxD, Photorhabdus luminscens LuxE, Photorhabdus luminscens LuxCDABE, E. coli lacZ, the Aequorea victoria Aequorin gene, KanMX, pat1, nat1, hph, CAT, Sh Ble, GUS, CYH2 and CAN1 (e.g., SEQ ID NOs: 42-51 )); wherein said first and second reporters are different; (b) contacting the cell with a substance to be tested for the ability to inhibit fungal cell growth; (c) detecting expression driven by the first and second promoters or signal from the reporters; and (d) selecting the substance if it causes the first promoter expression level or reporter signal to increase or decrease in relation to the expression level from the second promoter or signal from the second reporter. In an embodiment of the present invention, the method is carried out along with a negative-control comprising (i) introducing said first and second hybrids into a suitable fungal cell; (ii) contacting the cell with a blank substance which is known to not modulate expression from the promoters or signal from the reporters in the hybrids; and (iii) detecting expression driven by the promoters or signal from the reporters in the hybrids; (iv) comparing the expression level from the first promoter or signal from the first reporter in relation to the expression level from the second promoter or signal from the second reporter in the cell contacted with the blank substance with the expression level from the first promoter or signal from the first reporter in relation to the expression level from the second promoter or signal from the second reporter in the cell contacted with the substance to be tested for the ability to inhibit fungal cell growth. In an embodiment of the invention, the method is carried out along with a positive-control comprising: (i) introducing said first and second hybrids into a suitable fungal cell; (ii) contacting the cell with a positive-control substance which is known to modulate expression from the promoters or signal from the reporters in the hybrids; (iii) detecting expression driven by the promoters or signal from the reporters in the hybrids; and (iv) comparing the expression level from the first promoter or signal from the first reporter in relation to the expression level from the second promoter or signal from the second reporter in the cell contacted with the positive-control substance with the expression level from the first promoter or signal from the first reporter in relation to the expression level from the second promoter or signal from the second reporter in the cell contacted with the substance to be tested for the ability to inhibit fungal cell growth.

The present invention also provides a method for determining whether a substance inhibits growth of a fungal cell comprising (a) introducing a hybrid comprising a promoter selected from the group consisting of S. cerevisiae YHR082C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YDL126C Promoter S. cerevisiae YBR106W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YLL043W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YPR108W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YIL041W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YJL166W Promoter S. cerevisiae YDR165W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YLR330W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YDL058W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YHR012W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YKL053W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YKL196C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YDL103C Promoter S. cerevisiae YLR427W Promoter and S. cerevisiae YLL020C Promoter (e.g., SEQ ID NOs: 52-67); operably linked to a reporter (e.g., S. cerevisiae ADE2, S. cerevisiae LYS2, S. cerevisiae TRP1, S. cerevisiae LEU2, S. cerevisiae URA3, S. cerevisiae HIS3, Aequorea victoria GFP mutant 3, Renilla luciferase, Photinus pyralis luciferase, Photinus pyralis luciferase slk mutant, Vibrio fischeri luxA, Vibrio fischeri luxB, Vibrio fischeri luxC, Vibrio fischeri luxD, Vibrio fischeri luxE, Vibrio fischeri luxAB, Vibrio fischeri luxCDABE, Vibrio harveyi luxA, Vibrio harveyi luxB, Vibrio harveyi luxC, Vibrio harveyi luxD, Vibrio harveyi luxE, Vibrio harveyi luxAB, Vibrio harveyi luxCDABE, Photorhabdus luminscens LuxA, Photorhabdus luminscens LuxB, Photorhabdus luminscens LuxC, Photorhabdus luminscens LuxD, Photorhabdus luminscens LuxE, Photorhabdus luminscens LuxCDABE, E. coli lacZ, the Aequorea victoria Aequorin gene, KanMX, pat1, nat1, hph, CAT, Sh Ble, GUS, CYH2 or CAN1 (e.g., SEQ ID NOs: 42-51)) into a suitable fungal cell (e.g., Absidia corymbifera; Absidia spp; Acremonium spp; Ajellomyces capsulatus; Ajellomyces dermatitidis; Alternaria spp; Aphanoascus fulvescens; Apophysomyces spp; Arthroderma benhamiae; Arthroderma fulvum; Arthroderma gypseum; Arthroderma incurvatum; Arthroderma otae; Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii; Aspergillus flavus; Aspergillus fumigatus; Aspergillus glaucus; Aspergillus nidulans; Aspergillus niger; Aspergillus oryzae; Aspergillus spp; Aspergillus sydowi; Aspergillus terreus; Aspergillus ustus; Aspergillus versicolor; Aureobasidium pullulans; Basidiomycetes; Beauveria spp; Bipolaris hawaiiensis; Bipolaris spicifera; Bipolaris spp; Bjerkandera adusta; Blastomyces dermatitidis; Blastoschizomyces capitatus; Candida albicans; Candida beigelii; Candida colluculosa; Candida dubliniensis; Candida dubliniensis; Candida famata; Candida famata; Candida glabrata; Candida guilliermondii; Candida haemulonii; Candida holmii; Candida inconspicua; Candida intermedia; Candida keyfyr; Candida krusei; Candida krusei; Candida lambica; Candida lipolytica; Candida lusitaniae; Candida maris; Candida melibiosica; Candida norvegensis; Candida parapsilosis; Candida parapsilosis; Candida pelliculosa; Candida pelliculosa; Candida pseudotropicalis; Candida pulcherrima; Candida rugosa; Candida sake; Candida sphaerica; Candida spp; Candida stellatoidea; Candida tropicalis; Candida tropicalis; Candida viswanathii; Candida zeylanoides; Chrysosporium spp; Cladophialophora bantiana; Cladophialophora carrionii; Cladosporium spp; Coccidioides immitis; Cokeromyces recurvatus; Coprinus spp; Cryptococcus albidus; Cryptococcus gattii; Cryptococcus laurentii; Cryptococcus neoformans; Cunninghamella bertholletiae; Cunninghamella spp; Curvularia lunata; Curvularia spp; Dekkera bruxellensis; Epidermophyton floccosum; Epidermophyton floccosum; Exophiala dermatitidis; Exophiala jeanselmei; Exophiala moniliae; Exserohilum rostratum; Filobasidiella neoformans; Fonsecaea pedrosoi; Fusarium dimerum; Fusarium moniliforme; Fusarium oxysporum; Fusarium proliferatum; Fusarium solani; Fusarium spp; Geotrichum candidum; Geotrichum spp; Histoplasma capsulatum; Hortaea werneckii; Issatschenkia orientalis; Kluveromyces lactis; Kluyveromyces marxianus; Madurella grisae; Malassezia furfur; Malassezia globosa; Malassezia obtusa; Malassezia pachydermatis; Malassezia restricta; Malassezia slooffiae; Malassezia sympodialis; Metarrhizium anisopliae; Microsporum audouinii; Microsporum canis; Microsporum fulvum; Microsporum gypseum; Microsporum persicolor; Mucor circinelloides; Mucor hiemalis; Mucor racemosus; Mucor rouxii; Mucor spp; Nattrassia mangiferae; Nectria haematococca; Onychocola canadensis; Paecilomyces lilacinus; Paecilomyces spp; Paecilomyces variotii; Paracoccidioides brasiliensis; Penicillium marneffei; Penicillium spp; Phialophora spp; Phialophora verrucosa; Phoma spp; Pichia anomala; Pichia etchellsii; Pichia guilliermondii; Pichia ohmeri; Pithomyces spp; Pneumocystis carinii; Pseudallescheria boydii; Ramichloridium obovoideum; Rhizomucor miehei; Rhizomucor pusillus; Rhizomucor spp; Rhizopus arrhizus; Rhizopus microsporus; Rhizopus oryzae; Rhizopus schipperae; Rhizopus spp; Rhodotorula mucilaginosa; Rhodotorula rubra; Rhodotorula spp; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Saccharomyces spp; Sagrahamala spp; Saksenaea vasiformis; Scedosporium apiospermum; Scedosporium prolificans; Schizophyllum commune; Schizosaccharomyces pombe; Scopulariopsis brevicaulis; Scytalidium dimidiatum Ulocladium spp; Sporobolomyces spp; Sporothrix schenckii; Trichoderma spp; Trichophyton krajdenii; Trichophyton mentagrophytes; Trichophyton raubitschekii; Trichophyton rubrum; Trichophyton soudanense; Trichophyton spp; Trichophyton terrestre; Trichophyton tonsurans; Trichophyton verrucosum; Trichophyton violaceum; Trichosporon asahii; Trichosporon beigelii; Trichosporon capitatum; Trichosporon cutaneum; Trichosporon inkin; Trichosporon mucoides; Trichosporon spp; Tritirachium spp; Wangiella dermatitidis or Yarrowia lipolytica); (b) contacting the cell with a substance to be tested for the ability to inhibit growth of the cell; (c) detecting signal from the reporter; and (d) selecting the substance if it causes a reduction in the signal from the reporter and/or calculating the IC of the substance. In an embodiment of the present invention, the method is carried out along with a negative-control comprising: (i) introducing the hybrid into a suitable fungal cell; (ii) contacting the cell with a blank substance which is known to not inhibit fungal cell growth; (iii) detecting signal from the reporter in the hybrid; and (iv) comparing the signal from the reporter in the cell contacted with the blank substance with the signal from the reporter in the cell contacted with the substance to be tested for the ability to inhibit fungal cell growth. In an embodiment of the invention, the method is carried out along with a positive-control comprising (i) introducing the hybrid into a suitable fungal cell; (ii) contacting the cell with a positive-control substance which is known to inhibit fungal cell growth; (iii) detecting signal from the reporter in the hybrid; and (iv) comparing the signal from the reporter in the cell contacted with the positive-control substance with the signal from the reporter in the cell contacted with the substance to be tested for the ability to inhibit fungal cell growth.

The present invention further provides a method for determining whether a substance inhibits growth of a fungal cell comprising (a) introducing a first hybrid comprising a first promoter selected from the group consisting of S. cerevisiae YHR082C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YDL126C Promoter S. cerevisiae YBR106W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YLL043W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YPR108W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YIL041W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YJL166W Promoter S. cerevisiae YDR165W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YLR330W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YDL058W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YHR012W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YKL053W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YKL196C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YDL103C Promoter S. cerevisiae YLR427W Promoter and S. cerevisiae YLL020C Promoter (e.g., SEQ ID NOs: 52-67); operably linked to a first reporter (e.g., S. cerevisiae ADE2, S. cerevisiae LYS2, S. cerevisiae TRP1, S. cerevisiae LEU2, S. cerevisiae URA3, S. cerevisiae HIS3, Aequorea Victoria GFP mutant 3, Renilla luciferase, Photinus pyralis luciferase, Photinus pyralis luciferase slk mutant, Vibrio fischeri luxA, Vibrio fischeri luxB, Vibrio fischeri luxC, Vibrio fischeri luxD, Vibrio fischeri luxE, Vibrio fischeri luxAB, Vibrio fischeri luxCDABE, Vibrio harveyi luxA, Vibrio harveyi luxB, Vibrio harveyi luxC, Vibrio harveyi luxD, Vibrio harveyi luxE, Vibrio harveyi luxAB, Vibrio harveyi luxCDABE, Photorhabdus luminscens LuxA, Photorhabdus luminscens LuxB, Photorhabdus luminscens LuxC, Photorhabdus luminscens LuxD, Photorhabdus luminscens LuxE, Photorhabdus luminscens LuxCDABE, E. coli lacZ, the Aequorea victoria Aequorin gene, KanMX, pat1, nat1, hph, CAT, Sh Ble, GUS, CYH2 or CAN1 (e.g., SEQ ID NOs: 42-51)) and a second hybrid comprising a second promoter selected from the group consisting of S. cerevisiae YHR082C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YDL126C Promoter S. cerevisiae YBR106W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YLL043W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YPR108W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YIL041W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YJL166W Promoter S. cerevisiae YDR165W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YLR330W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YDL058W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YHR012W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YKL053W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YKL196C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YDL103C Promoter S. cerevisiae YLR427W Promoter and S. cerevisiae YLL020C Promoter (e.g., SEQ ID NOs: 52-67); operably linked to a second reporter (e.g., S. cerevisiae ADE2, S. cerevisiae LYS2, S. cerevisiae TRP1, S. cerevisiae LEU2, S. cerevisiae URA3, S. cerevisiae HIS3, Aequorea victoria GFP mutant 3, Renilla luciferase, Photinus pyralis luciferase, Photinus pyralis luciferase slk mutant, Vibrio fischeri luxA, Vibrio fischeri luxB, Vibrio fischeri luxC, Vibrio fischeri luxD, Vibrio fischeri luxE, Vibrio fischeri luxAB, Vibrio fischeri luxCDABE, Vibrio harveyi luxA, Vibrio harveyi luxB, Vibrio harveyi luxC, Vibrio harveyi luxD, Vibrio harveyi luxE, Vibrio harveyi luxAB, Vibrio harveyi luxCDABE, Photorhabdus luminscens LuxA, Photorhabdus luminscens LuxB, Photorhabdus luminscens LuxC, Photorhabdus luminscens LuxD, Photorhabdus luminscens LuxE, Photorhabdus luminscens LuxCDABE, E. coli lacZ, the Aequorea victoria Aequorin gene, KanMX, pat1, nat1, hph, CAT, Sh Ble, GUS, CYH2 or CAN1 (e.g., SEQ ID NOs: 42-51)) into a suitable fungal cell (e.g., Absidia corymbifera; Absidia spp; Acremonium spp; Ajellomyces capsulatus; Ajellomyces dermatitidis; Alternaria spp; Aphanoascus fulvescens; Apophysomyces spp; Arthroderma benhamiae; Arthroderma fulvum; Arthroderma gypseum; Arthroderma incurvatum; Arthroderma otae; Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii; Aspergillus flavus; Aspergillus fumigatus; Aspergillus glaucus; Aspergillus nidulans; Aspergillus niger; Aspergillus oryzae; Aspergillus spp; Aspergillus sydowi; Aspergillus terreus; Aspergillus ustus; Aspergillus versicolor; Aureobasidium pullulans; Basidiomycetes; Beauveria spp; Bipolaris hawaiiensis; Bipolaris spicifera; Bipolaris spp; Bjerkandera adusta; Blastomyces dermatitidis; Blastoschizomyces capitatus; Candida albicans; Candida beigelii; Candida colluculosa; Candida dubliniensis; Candida dubliniensis; Candida famata; Candida famata; Candida glabrata; Candida guilliermondii; Candida haemulonii; Candida holmii; Candida inconspicua; Candida intermedia; Candida keyfyr; Candida krusei; Candida krusei; Candida lambica; Candida lipolytica; Candida lusitaniae; Candida maris; Candida melibiosica; Candida norvegensis; Candida parapsilosis; Candida parapsilosis; Candida pelliculosa; Candida pelliculosa; Candida pseudotropicalis; Candida pulcherrima; Candida rugosa; Candida sake; Candida sphaerica; Candida spp; Candida stellatoidea; Candida tropicalis; Candida tropicalis; Candida viswanathii; Candida zeylanoides; Chrysosporium spp; Cladophialophora bantiana; Cladophialophora carrionii; Cladosporium spp; Coccidioides immitis; Cokeromyces recurvatus; Coprinus spp; Cryptococcus albidus; Cryptococcus gattii; Cryptococcus laurentii; Cryptococcus neoformans; Cunninghamella bertholletiae; Cunninghamella spp; Curvularia lunata; Curvularia spp; Dekkera bruxellensis; Epidermophyton floccosum; Epidermophyton floccosum; Exophiala dermatitidis; Exophiala jeanselmei; Exophiala moniliae; Exserohilum rostratum; Filobasidiella neoformans; Fonsecaea pedrosoi; Fusarium dimerum; Fusarium moniliforme; Fusarium oxysporum; Fusarium proliferatum; Fusarium solani; Fusarium spp; Geotrichum candidum; Geotrichum spp; Histoplasma capsulatum; Hortaea werneckii; Issatschenkia orientalis; Kluveromyces lactis; Kluyveromyces marxianus; Madurella grisae; Malassezia furfur; Malassezia globosa; Malassezia obtusa; Malassezia pachydermatis; Malassezia restricta; Malassezia slooffiae; Malassezia sympodialis; Metarrhizium anisopliae; Microsporum audouinii; Microsporum canis; Microsporum fulvum; Microsporum gypseum; Microsporum persicolor; Mucor circinelloides; Mucor hiemalis; Mucor racemosus; Mucor rouxii; Mucor spp; Nattrassia mangiferae; Nectria haematococca; Onychocola canadensis; Paecilomyces lilacinus; Paecilomyces spp; Paecilomyces variotii; Paracoccidioides brasiliensis; Penicillium marneffei; Penicillium spp; Phialophora spp; Phialophora verrucosa; Phoma spp; Pichia anomala; Pichia etchellsii; Pichia guilliermondii; Pichia ohmeri; Pithomyces spp; Pneumocystis carinii; Pseudallescheria boydii; Ramichloridium obovoideum; Rhizomucor miehei; Rhizomucor pusillus; Rhizomucor spp; Rhizopus arrhizus; Rhizopus microsporus; Rhizopus oryzae; Rhizopus schipperae; Rhizopus spp; Rhodotorula mucilaginosa; Rhodotorula rubra; Rhodotorula spp; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Saccharomyces spp; Sagrahamala spp; Saksenaea vasiformis; Scedosporium apiospermum; Scedosporium prolificans; Schizophyllum commune; Schizosaccharomyces pombe; Scopulariopsis brevicaulis; Scytalidium dimidiatum Ulocladium spp; Sporobolomyces spp; Sporothrix schenckii; Trichoderma spp; Trichophyton krajdenii; Trichophyton mentagrophytes; Trichophyton raubitschekii; Trichophyton rubrum; Trichophyton soudanense; Trichophyton spp; Trichophyton terrestre; Trichophyton tonsurans; Trichophyton verrucosum; Trichophyton violaceum; Trichosporon asahii; Trichosporon beigelii; Trichosporon capitatum; Trichosporon cutaneum; Trichosporon inkin; Trichosporon mucoides; Trichosporon spp; Tritirachium spp; Wangiella dermatitidis or Yarrowia lipolytica); wherein said first and second promoter are different and wherein said first and second reporter are different; (b) contacting the cell with a substance to be tested for the ability to inhibit growth of the cell; (c) detecting signal from the reporters; and (d) selecting the substance if it causes a reduction in the signal from both the first and second reporter and/or calculating the IC of the substance. In an embodiment of the present invention, the method is carried out along with a negative-control comprising (i) introducing the first and second hybrids into a suitable fungal cell; (ii) contacting the cell with a blank substance which is known to not inhibit fungal cell growth; (iii) detecting signal from the first and second reporters in the hybrids; and (iv) comparing the signal from the first and second reporters in the cell contacted with the blank substance with the signal from the first and second reporters in the cell contacted with the substance to be tested for the ability to inhibit fungal cell growth. In another embodiment of the invention, the method is carried out along with a positive-control comprising (i) introducing the first and second hybrids into a suitable fungal cell; (ii) contacting the cell with a positive control substance which is known to inhibit fungal cell growth; (iii) detecting signal from the first and second promoters in the hybrids; and (iv) comparing the signal from the first and second reporters in the cell contacted with the positive control substance with the signal from the first and second reporters in the cell contacted with the substance to be tested for the ability to inhibit fungal cell growth.

The present invention also provides a method for determining whether a substance inhibits growth of a malignant cell comprising (a) introducing, into a suitable fungal cell (e.g., Absidia corymbifera; Absidia spp; Acremonium spp; Ajellomyces capsulatus; Ajellomyces dermatitidis; Alternaria spp; Aphanoascus fulvescens; Apophysomyces spp; Arthroderma benhamiae; Arthroderma fulvum; Arthroderma gypseum; Arthroderma incurvatum; Arthroderma otae; Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii; Aspergillus flavus; Aspergillus fumigatus; Aspergillus glaucus; Aspergillus nidulans; Aspergillus niger; Aspergillus oryzae; Aspergillus spp; Aspergillus sydowi; Aspergillus terreus; Aspergillus ustus; Aspergillus versicolor; Aureobasidium pullulans; Basidiomycetes; Beauveria spp; Bipolaris hawaiiensis; Bipolaris spicifera; Bipolaris spp; Bjerkandera adusta; Blastomyces dermatitidis; Blastoschizomyces capitatus; Candida albicans; Candida beigelii; Candida colluculosa; Candida dubliniensis; Candida dubliniensis; Candida famata; Candida famata; Candida glabrata; Candida guilliermondii; Candida haemulonii; Candida holmii; Candida inconspicua; Candida intermedia; Candida keyfyr; Candida krusei; Candida krusei; Candida lambica; Candida lipolytica; Candida lusitaniae; Candida maris; Candida melibiosica; Candida norvegensis; Candida parapsilosis; Candida parapsilosis; Candida pelliculosa; Candida pelliculosa; Candida pseudotropicalis; Candida pulcherrima; Candida rugosa; Candida sake; Candida sphaerica; Candida spp; Candida stellatoidea; Candida tropicalis; Candida tropicalis; Candida viswanathii; Candida zeylanoides; Chrysosporium spp; Cladophialophora bantiana; Cladophialophora carrionii; Cladosporium spp; Coccidioides immitis; Cokeromyces recurvatus; Coprinus spp; Cryptococcus albidus; Cryptococcus gattii; Cryptococcus laurentii; Cryptococcus neoformans; Cunninghamella bertholletiae; Cunninghamella spp; Curvularia lunata; Curvularia spp; Dekkera bruxellensis; Epidermophyton floccosum; Epidermophyton floccosum; Exophiala dermatitidis; Exophiala jeanselmei; Exophiala moniliae; Exserohilum rostratum; Filobasidiella neoformans; Fonsecaea pedrosoi; Fusarium dimerum; Fusarium moniliforme; Fusarium oxysporum; Fusarium proliferatum; Fusarium solani; Fusarium spp; Geotrichum candidum; Geotrichum spp; Histoplasma capsulatum; Hortaea werneckii; Issatschenkia orientalis; Kluveromyces lactis; Kluyveromyces marxianus; Madurella grisae; Malassezia furfur; Malassezia globosa; Malassezia obtusa; Malassezia pachydermatis; Malassezia restricta; Malassezia slooffiae; Malassezia sympodialis; Metarrhizium anisopliae; Microsporum audouinii; Microsporum canis; Microsporum fulvum; Microsporum gypseum; Microsporum persicolor; Mucor circinelloides; Mucor hiemalis; Mucor racemosus; Mucor rouxii; Mucor spp; Nattrassia mangiferae; Nectria haematococca; Onychocola canadensis; Paecilomyces lilacinus; Paecilomyces spp; Paecilomyces variotii; Paracoccidioides brasiliensis; Penicillium marneffei; Penicillium spp; Phialophora spp; Phialophora verrucosa; Phoma spp; Pichia anomala; Pichia etchellsii; Pichia guilliermondii; Pichia ohmeri; Pithomyces spp; Pneumocystis carinii; Pseudallescheria boydii; Ramichloridium obovoideum; Rhizomucor miehei; Rhizomucor pusillus; Rhizomucor spp; Rhizopus arrhizus; Rhizopus microsporus; Rhizopus oryzae; Rhizopus schipperae; Rhizopus spp; Rhodotorula mucilaginosa; Rhodotorula rubra; Rhodotorula spp; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Saccharomyces spp; Sagrahamala spp; Saksenaea vasiformis; Scedosporium apiospermum; Scedosporium prolificans; Schizophyllum commune; Schizosaccharomyces pombe; Scopulariopsis brevicaulis; Scytalidium dimidiatum Ulocladium spp; Sporobolomyces spp; Sporothrix schenckii; Trichoderma spp; Trichophyton krajdenii; Trichophyton mentagrophytes; Trichophyton raubitschekii; Trichophyton rubrum; Trichophyton soudanense; Trichophyton spp; Trichophyton terrestre; Trichophyton tonsurans; Trichophyton verrucosum; Trichophyton violaceum; Trichosporon asahii; Trichosporon beigelii; Trichosporon capitatum; Trichosporon cutaneum; Trichosporon inkin; Trichosporon mucoides; Trichosporon spp; Tritirachium spp; Wangiella dermatitidis or Yarrowia lipolytica), a first hybrid comprising a first promoter selected from the group consisting of: S. cerevisiae YLR338W, S. cerevisiae YIL066W, S. cerevisiae YNL093W, S. cerevisiae YDR250C, S. cerevisiae YLR381W, S. cerevisiae YBL065W, S. cerevisiae YMR323W and S. cerevisiae YPL171C (e.g., SEQ ID NOs: 8, 22-25, 38, 39 and 68); operably linked to a first reporter (e.g., S. cerevisiae ADE2, S. cerevisiae LYS2, S. cerevisiae TRP1, S. cerevisiae LEU2, S. cerevisiae URA3, S. cerevisiae HIS3, Aequorea victoria GFP mutant 3, Renilla luciferase, Photinus pyralis luciferase, Photinus pyralis luciferase slk mutant, Vibrio fischeri luxA, Vibrio fischeri luxB, Vibrio fischeri luxC, Vibrio fischeri luxD, Vibrio fischeri luxE, Vibrio fischeri luxAB, Vibrio fischeri luxCDABE, Vibrio harveyi luxA, Vibrio harveyi luxB, Vibrio harveyi luxC, Vibrio harveyi luxD, Vibrio harveyi luxE, Vibrio harveyi luxAB, Vibrio harveyi luxCDABE, Photorhabdus luminscens LuxA, Photorhabdus luminscens LuxB, Photorhabdus luminscens LuxC, Photorhabdus luminscens LuxD, Photorhabdus luminscens LuxE, Photorhabdus luminscens LuxCDABE, E. coli lacZ, the Aequorea victoria Aequorin gene, KanMX, pat1, nat1, hph, CAT, Sh Ble, GUS, CYH2 or CAN1 (e.g., SEQ ID NO: 42-51)); and a second hybrid comprising a second promoter selected from the group consisting of: S. cerevisiae YHR082C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YDL126C Promoter S. cerevisiae YBR106W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YLL043W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YPR108W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YIL041W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YJL166W Promoter S. cerevisiae YDR165W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YLR330W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YDL058W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YHR012W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YKL053W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YKL196C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YDL103C Promoter S. cerevisiae YLR427W Promoter and S. cerevisiae YLL020C Promoter (e.g., SEQ ID NOs: 52-67); operably linked to a second reporter (e.g., S. cerevisiae ADE2, S. cerevisiae LYS2, S. cerevisiae TRP1, S. cerevisiae LEU2, S. cerevisiae URA3, S. cerevisiae HIS3, Aequorea victoria GFP mutant 3, Renilla luciferase, Photinus pyralis luciferase, Photinus pyralis luciferase slk mutant, Vibrio fischeri luxA, Vibrio fischeri luxB, Vibrio fischeri luxC, Vibrio fischeri luxD, Vibrio fischeri luxE, Vibrio fischeri luxAB, Vibrio fischeri luxCDABE, Vibrio harveyi luxA, Vibrio harveyi luxB, Vibrio harveyi luxC, Vibrio harveyi luxD, Vibrio harveyi luxE, Vibrio harveyi luxAB, Vibrio harveyi luxCDABE, Photorhabdus luminscens LuxA, Photorhabdus luminscens LuxB, Photorhabdus luminscens LuxC, Photorhabdus luminscens LuxD, Photorhabdus luminscens LuxE, Photorhabdus luminscens LuxCDABE, E. coli lacZ, the Aequorea Victoria Aequorin gene, KanMX, pat1, nat1, hph, CAT, Sh Ble, GUS, CYH2 or CAN1 (e.g., SEQ ID NO: 42-51)); (b) contacting the cell with a substance to be tested for the ability to inhibit growth of a malignant cell; (c) detecting expression driven by the first and second promoters; and (d) selecting the substance if it causes the expression level from the first promoter to increase or decrease in relation to the expression level from the second promoter. In an embodiment of the invention, the method is carried out along with a negative-control comprising (i) introducing said first and second hybrids into a suitable fungal cell; (ii) contacting the cell with a blank substance which is known to not modulate expression from the promoters in the hybrids; and (iii) detecting expression driven by the promoters in the hybrids; (iv) comparing the expression level from the first promoter in relation to the expression level from the second promoter in the cell contacted with the blank substance with the expression level from the first promoter in relation to the expression level from the second promoter in the cell contacted with the substance to be tested for the ability to inhibit malignant cell growth. In an embodiment of the invention, the method is carried out along with a positive-control comprising (i) introducing said first and second hybrids into a suitable fungal cell; (ii) contacting the cell with a positive-control substance which is known to modulate expression from the promoters in the hybrids; (iii) detecting expression driven by the promoters in the hybrids; and (iv) comparing the expression level from the first promoter in relation to the expression level from the second promoter in the cell contacted with the positive-control substance with the expression level from the first promoter in relation to the expression level from the second promoter in the cell contacted with the substance to be tested for the ability to inhibit malignant cell growth.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

Each of the following isolated polynucleotides (with the exception SEQ ID NOs: 42-51), optionally fused to a reporter, are part of the present invention along with the various methods of use thereof which are described herein.

TABLE 1 Polynucleic acids of the invention. SEQUENCE SEQUENCE IDENTIFIER S.cerevisiae YOR387C Promoter SEQ ID NO: 1 S.cerevisiae YMR175W Promoter SEQ ID NO: 2 S.cerevisiae YFR026C Promoter SEQ ID NO: 3 S.cerevisiae YJL153C Promoter SEQ ID NO: 4 S.cerevisiae YPL033C Promoter SEQ ID NO: 5 S.cerevisiae YOL058W Promoter SEQ ID NO: 6 S.cerevisiae YOR255W Promoter SEQ ID NO: 7 S.cerevisiae YDR250C Promoter SEQ ID NO: 8 S.cerevisiae YDR446W Promoter SEQ ID NO: 9 S.cerevisiae YDR536W Promoter SEQ ID NO: 10 S.cerevisiae YOR255W Promoter SEQ ID NO: 11 S.cerevisiae YDL243C Promoter SEQ ID NO: 12 S.cerevisiae YDR256C Promoter SEQ ID NO: 13 S.cerevisiae YFL020C Promoter SEQ ID NO: 14 S.cerevisiae YPL205C Promoter SEQ ID NO: 15 S.cerevisiae YGL205W Promoter SEQ ID NO: 16 S.cerevisiae YGL117W Promoter SEQ ID NO: 17 S.cerevisiae YHR029C Promoter SEQ ID NO: 18 S.cerevisiae YML116W Promoter SEQ ID NO: 19 S.cerevisiae YJR109C Promoter SEQ ID NO: 20 S.cerevisiae YCL030C Promoter SEQ ID NO: 21 S.cerevisiae YLR338W Promoter SEQ ID NO: 22 S.cerevisiae YIL066W-A Promoter SEQ ID NO: 23 S.cerevisiae YNL093W Promoter SEQ ID NO: 24 S.cerevisiae YLR381W Promoter SEQ ID NO: 25 S.cerevisiae YKL159C Promoter SEQ ID NO: 26 S.cerevisiae YIL058W Promoter SEQ ID NO: 27 S.cerevisiae YKR037C Promoter SEQ ID NO: 28 S.cerevisiae YNL279W Promoter SEQ ID NO: 29 S.cerevisiae YOR032C Promoter SEQ ID NO: 30 S.cerevisiae YML058W Promoter SEQ ID NO: 31 S.cerevisiae YMR303C Promoter SEQ ID NO: 32 S.cerevisiae YJL153C Promoter SEQ ID NO: 33 S.cerevisiae YLR092W Promoter SEQ ID NO: 34 S.cerevisiae YFL052W Promoter SEQ ID NO: 35 S.cerevisiae YIR017C Promoter SEQ ID NO: 36 S.cerevisiae YLL062C Promoter SEQ ID NO: 37 S.cerevisiae YMR323W Promoter SEQ ID NO: 38 S.cerevisiae YPL171C Promoter SEQ ID NO: 39 S.cerevisiae YER065C Promoter SEQ ID NO: 40 S.cerevisiae YDR114C Promoter SEQ ID NO: 41 S.cerevisiae ADE2 SEQ ID NO: 42 S.cerevisiae LYS2 SEQ ID NO: 43 S.cerevisiae TRP1 SEQ ID NO: 44 S.cerevisiae LEU2 SEQ ID NO: 45 S.cerevisiae URA3 SEQ ID NO: 46 S.cerevisiae HIS3 SEQ ID NO: 47 Aequorea victoria GFP mutant 3 SEQ ID NO: 48 Renilla luciferase SEQ ID NO: 49 Photinus pyralis luciferase SEQ ID NO: 50 E.coli lacZ SEQ ID NO: 51 S.cerevisiae YHR082C Promoter SEQ ID NO: 52 S.cerevisiae YDL126C Promoter SEQ ID NO: 53 S.cerevisiae YBR106W Promoter SEQ ID NO: 54 S.cerevisiae YLL043W Promoter SEQ ID NO: 55 S.cerevisiae YPR108W Promoter SEQ ID NO: 56 S.cerevisiae YIL041W Promoter SEQ ID NO: 57 S.cerevisiae YJL166W Promoter SEQ ID NO: 58 S.cerevisiae YDR165W Promoter SEQ ID NO: 59 S.cerevisiae YLR330W Promoter SEQ ID NO: 60 S.cerevisiae YDL058W Promoter SEQ ID NO: 61 S.cerevisiae YHR012W Promoter SEQ ID NO: 62 S.cerevisiae YKL053W Promoter SEQ ID NO: 63 S.cerevisiae YKL196C Promoter SEQ ID NO: 64 S.cerevisiae YDL103C Promoter SEQ ID NO: 65 S.cerevisiae YLR427W Promoter SEQ ID NO: 66 S.cerevisiae YLL020C Promoter SEQ ID NO: 67 S.cerevisiae YBL065W Promoter SEQ ID NO: 68 PR131 Primer SEQ ID NO: 69 PR132 Primer SEQ ID NO: 70 PR161 Primer SEQ ID NO: 71 PR162 Primer SEQ ID NO: 72 PHO 5 signal sequence SEQ ID NO: 73 PR172 Primer SEQ ID NO: 74 PR173B Primer SEQ ID NO: 75 PR207 Primer SEQ ID NO: 76 PR208 Primer SEQ ID NO: 77 PR213 Primer SEQ ID NO: 78 PR214 Primer SEQ ID NO: 79 PR167 Primer SEQ ID NO: 80 PR168SLK Primer SEQ ID NO: 81 PHO5 signal sequence SEQ ID NO: 82 PR174 Primer SEQ ID NO: 83 PR175B Primer SEQ ID NO: 84 pSPRT47 plasmid sequence SEQ ID NO: 85 pSPRT50 plasmid sequence SEQ ID NO: 86 pSPRT190 plasmid sequence SEQ ID NO: 87 pSPRT192 plasmid sequence SEQ ID NO: 88

Since the Saccharmomyces cerevisiae genome has been sequenced, the promoter sequences identified in Table 1 can also be found in publicly available databases including the Saccharomyces Genome Database; Stanford University, CA.

The term “fungal cell” or “fungal” or “fungus” includes, but is not limited to, any of the following organisms: Absidia corymbifera; Absidia spp; Acremonium spp; Ajellomyces capsulatus; Ajellomyces dermatitidis; Alternaria spp; Aphanoascus fulvescens; Apophysomyces spp; Arthroderma benhamiae; Arthroderma fulvum; Arthroderma gypseum; Arthroderma incurvatum; Arthroderma otae; Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii; Aspergillus flavus; Aspergillus fumigatus; Aspergillus glaucus; Aspergillus nidulans; Aspergillus niger; Aspergillus oryzae; Aspergillus spp; Aspergillus sydowi; Aspergillus terreus; Aspergillus ustus; Aspergillus versicolor; Aureobasidium pullulans; Basidiomycetes; Beauveria spp; Bipolaris hawaiiensis; Bipolaris spicifera; Bipolaris spp; Bjerkandera adusta; Blastomyces dermatitidis; Blastoschizomyces capitatus; Candida albicans; Candida beigelii; Candida colluculosa; Candida dubliniensis; Candida dubliniensis; Candida famata; Candida famata; Candida glabrata; Candida guilliermondii; Candida haemulonii; Candida holmui; Candida inconspicua; Candida intermedia; Candida keyfyr; Candida krusei; Candida krusei; Candida lambica; Candida lipolytica; Candida lusitaniae; Candida maris; Candida melibiosica; Candida norvegensis; Candida parapsilosis; Candida parapsilosis; Candida pelliculosa; Candida pelliculosa; Candida pseudotropicalis; Candida pulcherrima; Candida rugosa; Candida sake; Candida sphaerica; Candida spp; Candida stellatoidea; Candida tropicalis; Candida tropicalis; Candida viswanathii; Candida zeylanoides; Chrysosporium spp; Cladophialophora bantiana; Cladophialophora carrionii; Cladosporium spp; Coccidioides immitis; Cokeromyces recurvatus; Coprinus spp; Cryptococcus albidus; Cryptococcus gattii; Cryptococcus laurentii; Cryptococcus neoformans; Cunninghamella bertholletiae; Cunninghamella spp; Curvularia lunata; Curvularia spp; Dekkera bruxellensis; Epidermophyton floccosum; Epidermophyton floccosum; Exophiala dermatitidis; Exophiala jeanselmei; Exophiala moniliae; Exserohilum rostratum; Filobasidiella neoformans; Fonsecaea pedrosoi; Fusarium dimerum; Fusarium moniliforme; Fusarium oxysporum; Fusarium proliferatum; Fusarium solani; Fusarium spp; Geotrichum candidum; Geotrichum spp; Histoplasma capsulatum; Hortaea werneckii; Issatschenkia orientalis; Kluveromyces lactis; Kluyveromyces marxianus; Madurella grisae; Malassezia furfur; Malassezia globosa; Malassezia obtusa; Malassezia pachydermatis; Malassezia restricta; Malassezia slooffiae; Malassezia sympodialis; Metarrhizium anisopliae; Microsporum audouinii; Microsporum canis; Microsporum fulvum; Microsporum gypseum; Microsporum persicolor; Mucor circinelloides; Mucor hiemalis; Mucor racemosus; Mucor rouxii; Mucor spp; Nattrassia mangiferae; Nectria haematococca; Onychocola canadensis; Paecilomyces lilacinus; Paecilomyces spp; Paecilomyces variotii; Paracoccidioides brasiliensis; Penicillium marneffei; Penicillium spp; Phialophora spp; Phialophora verrucosa; Phoma spp; Pichia anomala; Pichia etchellsii; Pichia guilliermondii; Pichia ohmeri; Pithomyces spp; Pneumocystis carinii; Pseudallescheria boydii; Ramichloridium obovoideum; Rhizomucor miehei; Rhizomucor pusillus; Rhizomucor spp; Rhizopus arrhizus; Rhizopus microsporus; Rhizopus oryzae; Rhizopus schipperae; Rhizopus spp; Rhodotorula mucilaginosa; Rhodotorula rubra; Rhodotorula spp; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Saccharomyces spp; Sagrahamala spp; Saksenaea vasiformis; Scedosporium apiospermum; Scedosporium prolificans; Schizophyllum commune; Schizosaccharomyces pombe; Scopulariopsis brevicaulis; Scytalidium dimidiatum Ulocladium spp; Sporobolomyces spp; Sporothrix schenckii; Trichoderma spp; Trichophyton krajdenii; Trichophyton mentagrophytes; Trichophyton raubitschekii; Trichophyton rubrum; Trichophyton soudanense; Trichophyton spp; Trichophyton terrestre; Trichophyton tonsurans; Trichophyton verrucosum; Trichophyton violaceum; Trichosporon asahii; Trichosporon beigelii; Trichosporon capitatum; Trichosporon cutaneum; Trichosporon inkin; Trichosporon mucoides; Trichosporon spp; Tritirachium spp; Wangiella dermatitidis or Yarrowia lipolytica.

A substance “inhibits” growth of a cell (e.g., a fungal cell) if it reduces the ability of the cell to grow, to any degree (e.g., 10%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 90%, 99%, 100%), as compared to a similar cell's growth in the absence of the substance.

A promoter's expression level is “modulated” if it is increased or decreased to any degree.

Molecular Biology

In accordance with the present invention there may be employed conventional molecular biology, microbiology, and recombinant DNA techniques within the skill of the art. Such techniques are explained in the literature. See, e.g., Sambrook, Fritsch & Maniatis, Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, Second Edition (1989) Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y. (herein “Sambrook, et al., 1989”); DNA Cloning: A Practical Approach, Volumes I and II (D. N. Glover ed. 1985); Oligonucleotide Synthesis (M. J. Gait ed. 1984); Nucleic Acid Hybridization (B. D. Hames & S. J. Higgins eds. (1985)); Transcription And Translation (B. D. Hames & S. J. Higgins, eds. (1984)); Animal Cell Culture (R. I. Freshney, ed. (1986)); Immobilized Cells And Enzymes (IRL Press, (1986)); B. Perbal, A Practical Guide To Molecular Cloning (1984); F. M. Ausubel, et al. (eds.), Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (1994).

A “polynucleotide”, “nucleic acid” or “nucleic acid molecule” includes the polymeric form of ribonucleosides (adenosine, guanosine, uridine or cytidine; “RNA molecules”) or deoxyribonucleosides (deoxyadenosine, deoxyguanosine, deoxythymidine, or deoxycytidine; “DNA molecules”), or any phosphoester analogs thereof, such as phosphorothioates and thioesters, in single stranded form, double-stranded form or otherwise.

A “polynucleotide sequence”, “nucleic acid sequence” or “nucleotide sequence” is a series of nucleotide bases (also called “nucleotides”) in a nucleic acid, such as DNA or RNA, and means any chain of two or more nucleotides.

A “coding sequence” or a sequence “encoding” an expression product, such as a RNA, polypeptide, protein, or enzyme, is a nucleotide sequence that, when expressed, results in production of the product.

The term “gene” means a DNA sequence that codes for or corresponds to a particular sequence of ribonucleotides or amino acids which comprise all or part of one or more RNA molecules, proteins or enzymes, and may or may not include regulatory DNA sequences, such as promoter sequences, which determine, for example, the conditions under which the gene is expressed. Genes may be transcribed from DNA to RNA which may or may not be translated into an amino acid sequence.

As used herein, the term “oligonucleotide” refers to a nucleic acid, generally of no more than about 100 nucleotides (e.g., 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, or 90), that may be hybridizable to a genomic DNA molecule, a cDNA molecule, or an mRNA molecule encoding a gene, mRNA, cDNA, or other nucleic acid of interest. Oligonucleotides can be labeled, e.g., by incorporation of 32P-nucleotides, 3H-nucleotides, 14C-nucleotides, 35S-nucleotides or nucleotides to which a label, such as biotin, has been covalently conjugated. In one embodiment, a labeled oligonucleotide can be used as a probe to detect the presence of a nucleic acid. In another embodiment, oligonucleotides (one or both of which may be labeled) can be used as PCR primers, either for cloning full length or a fragment of the gene, or to detect the presence of nucleic acids. Generally, oligonucleotides are prepared synthetically, preferably on a nucleic acid synthesizer.

A “protein sequence”, “peptide sequence” or “polypeptide sequence” or “amino acid sequence” refers to a series of two or more amino acids in a protein, peptide or polypeptide.

“Protein”, “peptide” or “polypeptide” includes a contiguous string of two or more amino acids.

The term “isolated polynucleotide” or “isolated polypeptide” includes a polynucleotide (e.g., RNA or DNA molecule, or a mixed polymer) or a polypeptide, respectively, which is partially or fully separated from other components that are normally found in cells or in recombinant DNA expression systems or any other contaminant. These components include, but are not limited to, cell membranes, cell walls, ribosomes, polymerases, serum components and extraneous genomic sequences.

An isolated polynucleotide or polypeptide will, preferably, be an essentially homogeneous composition of molecules but may contain some heterogeneity.

“Amplification” of DNA as used includes the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to increase the concentration of a particular DNA sequence within a mixture of DNA sequences. For a description of PCR see Saiki, et al., Science (1988) 239:487.

The term “host cell” includes any cell of any organism that is selected, modified, transfected, transformed, grown, or used or manipulated in any way, for the production of a substance by the cell, for example the expression or replication, by the cell, of a gene, a DNA or RNA sequence or a protein. For example, a host cell may be a bacteria such as E. coli. The scope of the present invention includes a host cell comprising any of the responsive promoters or baseline promoters described herein along with fusions comprising a responsive promoter or baseline promoter fused to a reporter (e.g., a reporter gene). Preferably, the promoter or the fusion is in a vector or is genetically integrated into a chromosome of the host cell. A host cell can be, for example, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell (e.g., strain MS1554 or strain WT1554).

The sequence of a nucleic acid may be sequenced by any method known in the art (e.g., chemical sequencing or enzymatic sequencing). “Chemical sequencing” of DNA may denote methods such as that of Maxam and Gilbert (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1977) 74:560), in which DNA is randomly cleaved using individual base-specific reactions. “Enzymatic sequencing” of DNA may denote methods such as that of Sanger (Sanger, et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1977) 74:5463).

Aside from the responsive promoters of the invention, nucleic acids of the invention can be flanked by other natural regulatory (expression control) sequences, which may be associated with heterologous sequences, including internal ribosome entry sites (IRES) and other ribosome binding site sequences, enhancers, response elements, suppressors, signal sequences, polyadenylation sequences, introns, 5′- and 3′-non-coding regions, and the like.

In general, a “promoter” or “promoter sequence” is a DNA regulatory region capable of binding an RNA polymerase in a cell (e.g., directly or through other promoter-bound proteins or substances) and initiating transcription of a coding sequence. A promoter sequence is, in general, bounded at its 3′ terminus by the transcription initiation site and extends upstream (5′ direction) to include the minimum number of bases or elements necessary to initiate transcription at any level. Within the promoter sequence may be found a transcription initiation site (conveniently defined, for example, by mapping with nuclease S1), as well as protein binding domains (consensus sequences) responsible for the binding of RNA polymerase. The promoter may be operably associated with other expression control sequences, including enhancer and repressor sequences or with a nucleic acid of the invention.

A coding sequence (e.g., of a reporter) is “operably linked to”, “under the control of”, “functionally associated with” or “operably associated with” a transcriptional and translational control sequence (e.g., a responsive promoter) in a cell when the sequence directs RNA polymerase mediated transcription of the coding sequence into RNA, preferably mRNA, which then may be RNA spliced (if it contains introns) and, optionally, translated into a protein encoded by the coding sequence.

The terms “express” and “expression” mean allowing or causing the information in a gene, RNA or DNA sequence to become manifest; for example, producing a protein by activating the cellular functions involved in transcription and translation of a corresponding gene. A DNA sequence is expressed in or by a cell to form an “expression product” such as an RNA (e.g., mRNA) or a protein. The expression product itself may also be said to be “expressed” by the cell.

The term “transformation” means the introduction of a nucleic acid into a cell. The introduced gene or sequence may be called a “clone”. A host cell that receives the introduced DNA or RNA has been “transformed” and is a “transformant” or a “clone.” The DNA or RNA introduced to a host cell can come from any source, including cells of the same genus or species as the host cell, or from cells of a different genus or species.

The present invention includes vectors which comprise polynucleotides of the invention (e.g., SEQ ID NOs: 1-41 or 52-68 or a functional variant thereof). The term “vector” includes a vehicle (e.g., a plasmid) by which a DNA or RNA sequence can be introduced into a host cell, so as to transform the host and, optionally, promote expression and/or replication of the introduced sequence. In general, a plasmid is circular, includes an origin (e.g., 2 μm origin) and, preferably includes a selectable marker. In plasmids which can be maintained in yeast, the most commonly used yeast markers include URA3, HIS3, LEU2, TRP1 and LYS2, which complement specific auxotrophic mutations in a yeast host cell, such as ura3-52, his3-D1, leu2-D1, trpl-D1 and lys2-201, respectively. If the plasmid can be maintained in E. coli, it will include a bacterial origin (ori) and a selectable market such as the β-lactamase gene (bla or AMPr). Commonly used yeast/E. coli shuttle vectors are the Yip (see Myers et al., Gene 45: 299-310, (1986)), Yep (see Myers et al., Gene 45: 299-310, (1986)), YCp and YRp plasmids. The YIp integrative vectors do not replicate autonomously, but integrate into the genome at low frequencies by homologous recombination. The YEp yeast episomal plasmid vectors replicate autonomously because of the presence of a segment of the yeast 2 μm plasmid that serves as an origin of replication (2 μm ori). The 2 μm or is responsible for the high copy-number and high frequency of transformation of YEp vectors. The YCp yeast centromere plasmid vectors are autonomously replicating vectors containing centromere sequences, CEN, and autonomously replicating sequences, ARS. The YCp vectors are typically present at very low copy numbers, from 1 to 3 per cell. Autonomously replicating plasmids (YRp) which carry a yeast origin of replication (ARS sequence; but not centromere) that allows the transformed plasmids to be propagated several hundred-fold. YIp, YEp, YCp and YRp are commonly known in the art and widely available. Another acceptable yeast vector is a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC). A yeast artificial chromosome is a biological vector. It is an artificially constructed chromosome and contains the telomeric, centromeric, and replication origin sequences needed for replication in yeast cells (see Marchuk et al., Nucleic Acids Res. 16(15):7743 (1988); Rech et al., Nucleic Acids Res. 18(5):1313 (1990)).

Vectors that could be used in this invention include plasmids, viruses, bacteriophage, integratable DNA fragments, and other vehicles that may facilitate introduction of the nucleic acids into the genome of the host. Plasmids are the most commonly used form of vector but all other forms of vectors which serve a similar function and which are, or become, known in the art are suitable for use herein. See, e.g., Pouwels, et al., Cloning Vectors: A Laboratory Manual, 1985 and Supplements, Elsevier, N.Y., and Rodriguez et al. (eds.), Vectors: A Survey of Molecular Cloning Vectors and Their Uses, 1988, Buttersworth, Boston, Mass.

A polynucleotides may be expressed in an expression system. The term “expression system” means a host cell and compatible vector which, under suitable conditions, can express a protein or nucleic acid which is carried by the vector and introduced to the host cell. Common expression systems include E. coli host cells and plasmid vectors, insect host cells and Baculovirus vectors, and mammalian host cells and vectors.

The present invention also contemplates any superficial or slight modification to the responsive promoter and baseline promoter nucleotide sequences of the invention. For example, the present invention includes any “functional variant” of any responsive promoter of the present invention (e.g., SEQ ID NOs: 1-41 or 68) or of any baseline promoter of the present invention (e.g., SEQ ID NOs: 52-67). A functional variant of a promoter of the present invention includes any sequence variant that retains the ability to cause the expression of a downstream sequence (e.g., reporter such as SEQ ID NOs: 42-51) at any detectable level. Methods for determining whether a particular promoter sequence variant retains the ability to promoter expression of a down-stream sequence are conventional and well known in the art.

The present invention contemplates sequence conservative variants of the nucleic acids (e.g., SEQ ID NOs: 1-41 or 52-68). “Sequence-conservative variants” of a polynucleotide sequence (e.g., SEQ ID NOs: 1-41 or 52-68) are those in which a change of one or more nucleotides results in no significant alteration in the function of the promoter.

The present invention includes nucleic acids which hybridize to the responsive promoter and baseline promoter polynucleotides of the invention (e.g., SEQ ID NOs: 1-41 or 52-68). Preferably, the nucleic acids hybridize under low stringency conditions, more preferably under moderate stringency conditions and most preferably under high stringency conditions. A nucleic acid molecule is “hybridizable” to another nucleic acid molecule when a single stranded form of the nucleic acid molecule can anneal to the other nucleic acid molecule under the appropriate conditions of temperature and solution ionic strength (see Sambrook, et al., supra). The conditions of temperature and ionic strength determine the “stringency” of the hybridization. Typical low stringency hybridization conditions may be 55° C., 5×SSC, 0.1% SDS, 0.25% milk, and no formamide; or 30% formamide, 5×SSC, 0.5% SDS. Typical, moderate stringency hybridization conditions are similar to the low stringency conditions except the hybridization is carried out in 40% formamide, with 5× or 6×SSC. High stringency hybridization conditions are similar to low stringency conditions except the hybridization conditions are carried out in 50% formamide, 5× or 6×SSC and, optionally, at a higher temperature (e.g., 57 ° C., 59 ° C., 60° C, 62° C., 63° C., 65° C. or 68° C.). In general, SSC is 0.15M NaCl and 0.015M Na-citrate. Hybridization requires that the two nucleic acids contain complementary sequences, although, depending on the stringency of the hybridization, mismatches between bases are possible. The appropriate stringency for hybridizing nucleic acids depends on the length of the nucleic acids and the degree of complementation, variables well known in the art. The greater the degree of similarity or homology between two nucleotide sequences, the higher the stringency under which the nucleic acids may hybridize. For hybrids of greater than 100 nucleotides in length, equations for calculating the melting temperature have been derived (see Sambrook, et al., supra, 9.50-9.51). For hybridization with shorter nucleic acids, i.e., oligonucleotides, the position of mismatches becomes more important, and the length of the oligonucleotide determines its specificity (see Sambrook, et al., supra, 11.7-11.8).

Also included in the present invention are polynucleotides comprising nucleotide sequences which are at least about 70% identical, preferably at least about 80% identical, more preferably at least about 90% identical and most preferably at least about 95% identical (e.g., 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99%, 100%) to the reference responsive promoter and baseline promoter polynucleotides (e.g., SEQ ID NO: 1-41 and 52-68) when the comparison is performed by a BLAST algorithm wherein the parameters of the algorithm are selected to give the largest match between the respective sequences over the entire length of the respective reference sequences.

The following references regarding the BLAST algorithm are herein incorporated by reference: BLAST ALGORITHMS: Altschul, S. F., et al., J. Mol. Biol. (1990) 215:403-410; Gish, W., et al., Nature Genet. (1993) 3:266-272; Madden, T. L., et al., Meth. Enzymol. (1996) 266:131-141; Altschul, S. F., et al., Nucleic Acids Res. (1997) 25:3389-3402; Zhang, J., et al., Genome Res. (1997) 7:649-656; Wootton, J. C., et al., Comput. Chem. (1993) 17:149-163; Hancock, J. M., et al., Comput. Appl. Biosci. (1994) 10:67-70; ALIGNMENT SCORING SYSTEMS: Dayhoff, M. O., et al., “A model of evolutionary change in proteins.” in Atlas of Protein Sequence and Structure, (1978) vol. 5, suppl. 3. M. O. Dayhoff (ed.), pp. 345-352, Natl. Biomed. Res. Found., Washington, DC; Schwartz, R. M., et al., “Matrices for detecting distant relationships.” in Atlas of Protein Sequence and Structure, (1978) vol. 5, suppl. 3.“M. O. Dayhoff (ed.), pp. 353-358, Natl. Biomed. Res. Found., Washington, DC; Altschul, S. F., J. Mol. Biol. (1991) 219:555-565; States, D. J., et al., Methods (1991) 3:66-70; Henikoff, S., et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1992)89:10915-10919; Altschul, S. F., et al., J. Mol. Evol. (1993) 36:290-300; ALIGNMENT STATISTICS: Karlin, S., et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1990) 87:2264-2268; Karlin, S., et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1993) 90:5873-5877; Dembo, A., et al., Ann. Prob. (1994) 22:2022-2039; and Altschul, S. F. ” Evaluating the statistical significance of multiple distinct local alignments.” in Theoretical and Computational Methods in Genome Research (S. Suhai, ed.), (1997) pp. 1-14, Plenum, New York.

Promoters and Screening Assays

The present invention provides several “gene responsive promoters”, “responsive promoters” or “biomarkers” which have been identified in S. cerevisiae (e.g., SEQ ID NOs: 1-41 or 68). The expression from each responsive promoter has been correlated with the function of a particular gene which is essential in S. cerevisiae . Below, in table 2, each gene (“gene” column) whose temperature-sensitive allele was inactivated by shift to the restrictive temperature is correlated with a promoter (“RP” column) which was up-regulated in response to the shift along with the function of the gene. The responsive promoters of the present invention can be used to identify substances that modulate (increase or decrease) the function of an essential fungal gene, for example, in the assays described below. A substance which modulates (increases or decreases) the function of any of the essential genes mentioned herein is useful as an anti-fungal compound which can be used, inter alia, to treat or prevent fungal infections. For example, if the substance inhibits the activity of the essential gene's translated product, it will lead to the death, or decreased growth, of the host cell carrying the gene. Since fungi, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans, are genetically related, a substance which modulates an essential gene in S. cerevisiae and kills the cell or inhibits its growth will be lethal to or inhibit the growth of all of the cell types. A substance which modulates the function of any of the essential genes mentioned herein is also useful to the treatment or prevention of cancer (e.g., by inhibition of the growth of a malignant cell).

Substances which inhibit fungal cell growth or malignant cell growth reduce it by any measurable degree. For example, a substance which inhibits fungal cell or malignant cell growth can kill the cell completely or reduce its level of growth by 10%. A substance which inhibits fungal cell growth can be “fungistatic” in that it inhibits growth of the cell to any measurable degree without killing the cell.

One embodiment of the present invention includes a screening assay wherein a biomarker of the present invention (e.g., SEQ ID NO: 1-41 or 68 or a functional variant thereof) is used to identify a substance which inhibits fungal cell growth (a modulator of an essential fungal gene) comprising the following steps:(a) introducing a hybrid comprising a responsive promoter (e.g., SEQ ID NO: 1-41 or 68 or a functional variant thereof) operably linked to a reporter (e.g., reporter gene such as SEQ ID NO: 42-51 or a functional variant thereof) into a suitable cell (e.g., a fugal cell); (b) contacting the cell with a substance to be tested for the ability to inhibit fungal cell growth; (c) detecting expression driven by the promoter in the hybrid; (d) selecting the substance if it modulates expression from the responsive promoter.

If the level of expression driven by the promoter is modulated (increased or decreased) in response to the substance, this indicates that the substance does modulate the activity of the essential gene and inhibits fungal cell growth.

In an embodiment of the invention, a negative-control screening assay is also carried out. In this embodiment, a fungal cell comprising the hybrid is contacted with the substance being tested and another, separate cell comprising the same hybrid is contacted with a blank (i.e., a substance known not to modulate the expression level from the promoter) such as DMSO, water or buffer. If the substance being tested increases or decreases the expression level from the promoter in relation to the expression level from the promoter/reporter in the cell contacted with the blank, this indicates that the substance does modulate the expression level from the responsive promoter, and, that it does modulate the activity of the essential fungal gene (i.e., the substance is an anti-fungal substance). A positive-control screening assay can also be performed. In the positive-control assay, a fungal cell comprising the hybrid is contacted with the substance being tested and another, separate cell comprising the same hybrid is contacted with a positive-control substance known to modulate the expression level from the promoter. If the substance being tested and the positive-control substance both increase or decrease the expression level from the promoter, this indicates that the substance being tested does modulate the expression level from the responsive promoter, and, that it does modulate the activity of the essential fungal gene (i.e., the substance inhibits fungal cell growth).

Another embodiment of the present invention includes a ratiometric screening assay wherein a responsive promoter of the present invention is used to identify a substance which inhibits fungal cell growth (a modulator of an essential fungal gene) comprising the following steps: (a) introducing, into a suitable cell, a first hybrid comprising a first (responsive) promoter selected from the group consisting of: S. cerevisiae YOR387C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YMR175W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YFR026C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YJL153C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YPL033C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YOL058W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YOR255W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YDR250C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YDR446W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YDR536W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YOR255W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YDL243C Promoter S. cerevisiae YDR256C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YFL020C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YPL205C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YGL205W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YGL117W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YHR029C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YML116W Promoter S. cerevisiae YJR109C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YCL030C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YLR338W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YIL066W-A Promoter, S. cerevisiae YNL093W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YLR381W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YKL159C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YIL058W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YKR037C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YNL279W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YOR032C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YML058W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YMR303C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YJL 1 53C Promoter S. cerevisiae YLR092W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YFL052W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YIR017C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YLL062C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YMR323W Promoter S. cerevisiae YPL171 C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YER065C Promoter and S. cerevisiae YDR114C Promoter (e.g., SEQ ID NO: 1-41 or 68 or a functional variant thereof); operably linked to a first reporter (e.g., SEQ ID NO: 42-51 or a functional variant thereof); and a second hybrid comprising a second (baseline) promoter selected from the group consisting of: S. cerevisiae YHR082C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YDL126C Promoter S. cerevisiae YBR106W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YLL043W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YPR108W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YIL041W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YJL166W Promoter S. cerevisiae YDR165W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YLR330W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YDL058W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YHR012W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YKL053W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YKL196C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YDL103C Promoter S. cerevisiae YLR427W Promoter and S. cerevisiae YLL020C Promoter (e.g., SEQ ID NO: 52-67 or a functional variant thereof); operably linked to a second reporter (e.g., SEQ ID NO: 42-51 or a functional variant thereof); (b) contacting the cell with a substance to be tested for the ability to inhibit fungal cell growth; (c) detecting expression driven by the first and second promoters; and (d) selecting the substance if it causes the first (gene responsive) promoter expression level to increase or decrease in relation to the expression level from the second (baseline) promoter.

In the ratiometric assay, a responsive promoter expression level that does not increase or decrease in relation to the expression level from the baseline promoter, in response to contacting the cell with the substance being tested for anti-fungal activity, indicates that the substance does not modulate the expression level from the responsive promoter, and, that it does not modulate the activity of the essential fungal gene. A responsive promoter expression level that increases or decreases in relation to the expression level from the baseline promoter, in response to contacting the cell with the substance being tested for anti-fungal activity, indicates that the substance does modulate the expression level from the responsive promoter, and, that it does modulate the activity of the essential fungal gene (i.e., it inhibits fungal growth).

In an embodiment of the invention, a negative-control ratiometric screening assay is also carried out. In this embodiment, a cell comprising the first and second hybrid is contacted with the substance being tested and another, separate cell comprising the first and second hybrid is contacted with a blank (i.e., a substance known not to modulate the expression level from the first or second promoters) such as DMSO, water or buffer. If the substance being tested increases or decreases the expression level from the first promoter in relation to the expression level from the second promoter and if the blank fails to increase or decrease the expression level from the first promoter in relation to the second promoter expression level, this indicates that the substance does modulate the expression level from the responsive promoter, and, that it does modulate the activity of the essential fungal gene (i.e., the substance is an anti-fungal substance). A positive-control ratiometric screening assay may also be performed. In the positive-control assay, a cell comprising the first and second hybrid is contacted with the substance being tested and another, separate cell comprising the first and second hybrid is contacted with a positive-control substance known to modulate the expression level from the first promoter in relation to the expression level from the second promoter. If the substance being tested and the positive-control substance both modulate the expression level from the first promoter in relation to the expression level from the second promoter, this indicates that the substance being tested does modulate the expression level from the responsive promoter/reporter, and, that it does modulate the activity of the essential fungal gene (i.e., the substance inhibits fungal cell growth).

Up-regulation or down regulation of a given responsive promoter, and identification of a substance which inhibits fungal cell growth, can be assayed using an array. For example, a cell comprising a responsive promoter/reporter hybrid or baseline promoter/reporter hybrid can be contacted with a substance to be tested for the ability inhibit fungal cell growth (to modulate an essential fungal gene). Promoter expression can then be assayed using conventional microarray assay techniques.

In one embodiment of the invention, a substance is determined to inhibit fungal cell growth (modulate the activity of an essential fungal gene) in a method as follows: (1) contacting a suitable fungal cell (e.g., an S. cerevisiae cell) with a substance to be tested for the ability to inhibit fungal cell growth (modulate an essential fungal gene) wherein said cell comprises one or more biomarkers operably linked to one or more reporter (e.g., the open reading frame which is located downstream of each biomarker promoter in a wild-type cell); (2) obtaining mRNA from the cell; (3) preparing labeled polynucleotides from the mRNA (e.g., comprising a radiolabel (e.g., 32P, 35S, 14C, 3H) or another suitable detectable label); (4) contacting the labeled polynucleotide with an array, which comprises one or more polynucleotides encoding said reporters (or oligonucleotide fragments thereof), under conditions sufficient for labeled mRNA to bind with corresponding polynucleotide probes on the array; (5) optionally removing unbound, labeled mRNA from the array; and (6) detecting bound, labeled mRNA.

The polynucleotide, in the array, can comprise a fragment of the reporter polynucleotide, for example 10, 20, 30 or more nucleotides thereof.

A “nucleic acid array”, “array” or “matrix” refers to an array, including a microarray (see infra), containing nucleic acid probes, such as oligonucleotides or larger portions of genes. The nucleic acid on the array is preferably single stranded. Arrays wherein the probes are oligonucleotides are referred to as “oligonucleotide arrays” or “oligonucleotide chips.” A “microarray”, “biochip” or “biological chip” is an array of regions having a density of discrete regions of at least about 100/cm2, and preferably at least about 1000/cm2. The regions in a microarray have typical dimensions, e.g., diameters, in the range of between about 10-250 μm, and are separated from other regions in the array by about the same distance.

The scope of the present invention includes an array (e.g., a microarray; discussed above) comprising one or more of said reporters (discussed above) which are operably linked to one or more of said biomarkers (discussed above).

Baseline promoters of the invention (e.g., SEQ ID NOs: 52-67 or a functional variant thereof) can also be used in assays for determining if a substance inhibits fungal cell growth and to calculate the inhibitory concentration (IC; e.g., IC50 or IC90) of a particular substance. Since baseline promoters generally exhibit a constant level of expression, they provide a convenient marker for overall cellular growth or cellular mass. Generally, baseline promoters can be used to determine the IC (e.g., IC50 or IC90) of a given substance in a method including the following steps: (a) introducing a hybrid comprising a baseline promoter selected from the group consisting of: S. cerevisiae YHR082C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YDL126C Promoter S. cerevisiae YBR106W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YLL043W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YPR108W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YIL04 1W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YJL166W Promoter S. cerevisiae YDR 165W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YLR330W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YDL058W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YHR012W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YKL053W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YKL196C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YDL103C Promoter S. cerevisiae YLR427W Promoter and S. cerevisiae YLL020C Promoter (e.g., SEQ ID NO: 52-67 or a functional variant thereof); operably linked to a reporter (e.g., SEQ ID NO: 42-51 or a functional variant thereof) into a suitable fungal cell; (b) contacting the cell with a substance to be tested for the ability to inhibit growth of the cell; (c) detecting signal from the reporter; and (d) selecting the substance if it causes a reduction in the signal from the reporter and/or calculating the IC (e.g., IC50 or IC90).

Optionally, this method can be performed with two or more different baseline promoter/reporter fusions (e.g., in a ratiometric assay discussed below). The IC (e.g., IC50 or IC90) can then be determined two or more times when each separate reporter is measured.

In an embodiment of the invention, a negative-control screening assay is also carried out. In this embodiment, a cell comprising the hybrid is contacted with the substance being tested and another, separate cell comprising the same hybrid is contacted with a blank (i.e., a substance known not to modulate the expression level from the first or second promoters) such as DMSO, water or buffer. If the substance being tested decreases the reporter signal in relation to the signal from the reporter in the cell contacted with the blank, this indicates that the substance is an anti-fungal substance. A positive-control screening assay may also be performed. In the positive-control assay, a cell comprising the hybrid is contacted with the substance being tested and another, separate cell comprising the same hybrid is contacted with a positive-control substance known to modulate the reporter signal (e.g., a known anti-fungal substance such as fluconazole, itraconazole, moconazole or terbinafine). If the substance being tested and the positive-control substance both decrease the reporter signal, this indicates that the substance being tested is an anti-fungal substance.

Baseline promoters of the invention (e.g., SEQ ID NOs: 52-67 or a functional variant thereof) can also be used in ratiometric assays, comprising two or more baseline promoters operably linked to two or more different reporters, for determining if a substance inhibits fungal cell growth and to calculate the inhibitory concentration (IC; e.g., IC50 or IC90) of a particular substance. For example, a ratiometric assay comprising use of a baseline promoter will comprise the steps of: (a) introducing two or more hybrids comprising two or more different baseline promoters selected from the group consisting of: S. cerevisiae YHR082C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YDL126C Promoter S. cerevisiae YBR106W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YLL043W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YPR108W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YIL041W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YJL166W Promoter S. cerevisiae YDR165W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YLR330W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YDL058W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YHR012W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YKL053W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YKL196C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YDL103C Promoter S. cerevisiae YLR427W Promoter and S. cerevisiae YLL020C Promoter (e.g., SEQ ID NO: 52-67 or a functional variant thereof); operably linked to two or more different reporters (e.g., SEQ ID NO: 42-51 or a functional variant thereof) into a suitable fungal cell; (b) contacting the cell with a substance to be tested for the ability to inhibit growth of the cell; (c) detecting signal from the reporter; and (d) selecting the substance if it causes a reduction in the signal from the reporter and/or calculating the IC (e.g., IC50 or IC90). A range of several concentrations of a given substance can be assayed using this ratiometric method.

Ideally, the extent to which the reporter signal decreases, in response to any given concentration of a substance which is found to inhibit fungal cell growth, will be proportional (e.g., as compared to the promoter's expression level in the absence of any substance) to the extent to which the other reporter signals decrease in response to the same concentration of substance.

In an embodiment of the invention, a negative-control ratiometric screening assay is also carried out. In this embodiment, a cell comprising the first and second hybrid is contacted with the substance being tested and another, separate cell comprising the first and second hybrid is contacted with a blank (i.e., a substance known not to modulate the expression level from the first or second promoters) such as DMSO, water or buffer. If the substance being tested decreases the signal from the first and second reporters and if the blank fails to decrease the signal from the first and second reporters, this indicates that the substance is an anti-fungal substance. A positive-control ratiometic screening assay may also be performed. In the positive-control assay, a cell comprising the first and second hybrid is contacted with the substance being tested and another, separate cell comprising the first and second hybrid is contacted with a positive-control substance known to inhibit fungal growth (e.g., a known anti-fungal substance such as fluconazole, itraconazole, moconazole or terbinafine). If the substance being tested and the positive-control substance both decrease the signal from the first and second reporters, this indicates that the substance being tested is an anti-fungal substance.

Using two or more baseline promoters is advantageous because it facilitates elimination of false positives. For example, a false positive signal, suggesting that a substance being tested inhibits fungal cell growth, would occur if the substance causes a reduction in expression from the baseline promoter without inhibiting fungal cell growth. It is unlikely that the substance would have the ability to reduce baseline promoter expression, without reducing fungal cell growth (i.e., a false positive signal), with respect to two different baseline promoters.

The term “inhibitory concentration” or “IC” refers to the minimum concentration at which the substance being tested can inhibit the growth of the organism being tested. The term includes all inhibitory concentrations, for example, IC90 which is the inhibitor concentration needed to inhibit growth of 90% of the cells being tested and IC50 which is the inhibitor concentration needed to inhibit growth of 50% of the cells being tested. In an embodiment of the invention, a substance being tested for anti-fungal or anti-malignant cell growth activity is selected if it has a relatively low IC50 or IC90.

The present invention also includes compositions comprising any one of the isolated responsive promoters (e.g., SEQ ID NOs: 1-41 or 68 or a functional variant thereof) or baseline promoters identified herein (e.g., SEQ ID NOs: 52-67 or a functional variant thereof). Also included in the present invention is any of the isolated responsive promoters or baseline promoters identified herein fused to a reporter (e.g., a reporter gene including, but not limited to SEQ ID NOs: 42-51 or a functional variant thereof).

A responsive promoter/reporter gene hybrid and/or baseline promoter/reporter gene hybrid can be sustained in a host cell, in which a screening assay of the invention is performed, by any acceptable method known in the art. For example, the hybrid can be genetically integrated into the chromosome of the host cell or it can be maintained episomally, for example, in a plasmid (discussed above) or yeast artificial chromosome (YAC; discussed above) or other vector. In S. cerevisiae cells, for example, a hybrid can easily be integrated into the HO locus. Methods for constructing plasmids and vectors and for integrating a polynucleotide into a host cell chromosome are conventional and very well known in the art.

In another embodiment of the invention, anti-cancer agents can be identified using a responsive promoter of the invention. In particular, anti-cancer agents for treatment or prevention of cancer (e.g., by inhibiting growth of a malignant cell) in a mammal, preferably a human can be identified using a responsive promoter of the invention. For example, the S. cerevisiae YLR338W (SEQ ID NO: 22), S. cerevisiae YIL066W (SEQ ID NO: 23), S. cerevisiae YNL093W (SEQ ID NO: 24), S. cerevisiae YDR250C (SEQ ID NO: 8), S. cerevisiae YLR381W (SEQ ID NO: 25), S. cerevisiae YBL065W (SEQ ID NO: 68), S. cerevisiae YMR323W (SEQ ID NO: 38) and S. cerevisiae YPL171C (SEQ ID NO: 39) responsive promoters are particularly useful for identification of anti-cancer agents. These promoters have been found to modulate when genes in S. cerevisiae biochemical pathways and functions, that are homologous to human biochemical pathways and functions found to modulate the development of cancer (e.g., the mitotic cluster, including nucleocytoplasmic transport RAS, mitotic spindle, telomerase maintenance, DNA damage and G1 cell cycle control, establishment of cell polarity, exocyst complex and acetyltransferases). For example, the scope of the invention includes methods for identifying whether a substance can treat or prevent cancer in a mammal (e.g., by inhibiting growth of a malignant cell) comprising the following steps: (a) introducing a hybrid comprising a responsive promoter selected from the group consisting of S. cerevisiae YLR338W (SEQ ID NO: 22), S. cerevisiae YIL066W (SEQ ID NO: 23), S. cerevisiae YNL093W (SEQ ID NO: 24), S. cerevisiae YDR250C (SEQ ID NO: 8), S. cerevisiae YLR381W (SEQ ID NO: 25), S. cerevisiae YBL065W (SEQ ID NO: 68), S. cerevisiae YMR323W (SEQ ID NO: 38) and S. cerevisiae YPL171C (SEQ ID NO: 39) operably linked to a reporter (e.g., reporter gene such as SEQ ID NO: 42-51 or a functional variant thereof) into a suitable cell (e.g., a fugal cell); (b) contacting the cell with a substance to be tested for the ability to inhibit or prevent cancer; (c) detecting expression driven by the responsive promoter in the hybrid; (d) selecting the substance if it modulates expression from the responsive promoter.

The present invention also includes a ratiometric screening assay wherein a responsive promoter of the present invention is used to identify a substance that can treat or prevent cancer in a mammal (e.g., by inhibiting growth of a malignant cell) comprising the following steps: (a) introducing, into a suitable fungal cell, a first hybrid comprising a first (gene responsive) promoter selected from the group consisting of: S. cerevisiae YLR338W (SEQ ID NO: 22), S. cerevisiae YIL066W (SEQ ID NO: 23), S. cerevisiae YNL093W (SEQ ID NO: 24), S. cerevisiae YDR250C (SEQ ID NO: 8), S. cerevisiae YLR381W (SEQ ID NO: 25), S. cerevisiae YBL065W (SEQ ID NO: 68), S. cerevisiae YMR323W (SEQ ID NO: 38) and S. cerevisiae YPL171C (SEQ ID NO: 39); operably linked to a first reporter (e.g., SEQ ID NO: 42-51 or a functional variant thereof); and a second hybrid comprising a second (baseline promoter) selected from the group consisting of: S. cerevisiae YHR082C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YDL126C Promoter S. cerevisiae YBR106W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YLL043W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YPR108W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YIL041W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YJL166W Promoter S. cerevisiae YDR165W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YLR330W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YDL058W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YHR012W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YKL053W Promoter, S. cerevisiae YKL196C Promoter, S. cerevisiae YDL103C Promoter S. cerevisiae YLR427W Promoter and S. cerevisiae YLL020C Promoter (e.g., SEQ ID NO: 52-67 or a functional variant thereof); operably linked to a second reporter (e.g., SEQ ID NO: 42-51 or a functional variant thereof); (b) contacting the cell with a substance to be tested for the ability to treat or prevent cancer; (c) detecting expression driven by the first and second promoters; and (d) selecting the substance if it causes the expression level from the first (gene responsive) promoter to increase or decrease in relation to the expression level from the second (baseline) promoter.

In an embodiment of the invention, a negative-control ratiometric screening assay is also carried out. In this embodiment, a cell comprising the first and second hybrid is contacted with the substance being tested and another, separate cell comprising the first and second hybrid is contacted with a blank (i.e., a substance known not to modulate the expression level from the first or second promoters) such as DMSO, water or buffer. If the substance being tested increases or decreases the expression level from the first promoter/reporter in relation to the second promoter/reporter and if the blank fails to increase or decrease the expression level from the first promoter/reporter in relation to the second promoter/reporter, this indicates that the substance does modulate the expression level from the responsive promoter, and, that it does modulate the activity of the fungal gene (i.e., the substance is an anti-cancer substance). A positive-control ratiometic screening assay may also be performed. In the positive-control assay, a cell comprising the first and second hybrid is contacted with the substance being tested and another, separate cell comprising the first and second hybrid is contacted with a positive-control substance known to modulate the expression level from the first promoter/reporter in relation to the expression level from the second promoter/reporter. If the substance being tested and the positive-control substance both modulate the expression level from the first promoter/reporter in relation to the expression level from the second promoter/reporter, this indicates that the substance being tested does modulates the expression level from the responsive promoter/reporter, and, that it does modulate the activity of the essential fungal gene (i.e., the substance is an anti-cancer substance).

Reporters

One embodiment of the invention includes a responsive promoter of the invention (e.g., SEQ ID NOs: 1-41 or 68 or a functional variant thereof) or baseline promoter of the invention (e.g., SEQ ID NOs: 52-67 or a functional variant thereof) fused to a reporter. Any suitable reporter may be fused to the responsive promoter or baseline promoter. A “reporter” is any polynucleic acid which can be detected when expressed from a promoter. The term includes reporter genes whose activity can be detected as well as polynucleic acids which can be detected directly, for example, by northern blot analysis. Alternatively, the translated protein product of the expressed polynucleic acid can be detected by western blot analysis. For example, the term “reporter” includes the genetic sequence which is down-stream of a given responsive promoter on a wild-type yeast chromosome. Reporters include luminescent and fluorescent reporter genes including, but not limited to, green fluorescent protein (e.g., SEQ ID NO: 48), lacZ (e.g., SEQ ID NO: 51), Renilla luciferase (e.g., SEQ ID NO: 49; see also Genbank Accession Nos.: AF416990; AR149562; AF362548 or M63501) firefly (Photinus pyralis) luciferase (e.g., SEQ ID NO: 50; see also Genbank Accession Nos.: U03687; M15077 and X84846), S. cerevisiae ADE2 (e.g., SEQ ID NO: 42), S. cerevisiae LYS2 (e.g., SEQ ID NO: 43), S. cerevisiae TRP1 (e.g., SEQ ID NO: 44), S. cerevisiae LEU2 (e.g., SEQ ID NO: 45), S. cerevisiae URA3 (e.g., SEQ ID NO: 46) and S. cerevisiae HIS3 (e.g., SEQ ID NO: 47).

The term “signal”, in relation to a reporter, refers to the indicia of expression of the reporter or the presence of the reporter's gene product (e.g., protein or mRNA) in a sample. For example, fluorescence is a signal that indicates the presence of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and a “band” on photographic film generated during a northern blot procedure is a signal indicating the presence of a gene's RNA transcript. In an embodiment of the invention, the expression driven from a given promoter fused to a given reporter is measured by determining the signal from the reporter.

Firefly luciferase may also be altered as described in Leskinen et al. (Yeast. 20(13):1109-1113 (2003)) wherein the carboxy-terminal peroxisomal targeting signal, Ser-Lys-Leu (slk), of the firefly luciferase gene was removed; this allowed luciferase activity to be detected in whole S. cerevisiae cells.

Other versions of luciferase which may be fused to a responsive promoter of the invention (e.g., SEQ ID NOs: 1-41, 52-68 or a functional variant thereof) include the Vibrio harveyi luxA (Genbank Accession No. M10961) and Vibrio harveyi luxB (Genbank Accession No. M 10961. 1) genes, together, unfused or fused (i. e., luxAB or luxBA), Vibrio harveyi luxC, Vibrio harveyi luxD, Vibrio harveyi luxE, Vibrio harveyi luxCDABE, the Photorhabdus luminescens LuxCDABE operon (Genbank Accession No. M62917), Photorhabdus luminescens LuxA, Photorhabdus luminescens LuxB, Photorhabdus luminescens LuxC, Photorhabdus luminescens LuxD, Photorhabdus luminescens LuxE, optionally expressed in the presence of the Vibrio fischeri flavin oxidoreductase gene (frp; see Gupta et al., FEMS Yeast Res. 4(3):305-13 (2003)); Vibrio fischeri luxAB (see, e.g., Yang et al., FEMS Microb. Lett. 176(1): 57-65(1999)), the Vibrio fischeri LuxCDABE operon (see e.g., Van Dyk et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60:1414-1420 (1994); Belkin et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62:2252-2256 (1996); Belkin et al., Water Res. 31:3009-3016 (1997); Genbank Accession No. AF170104); Vibrio fischeri luxA, Vibrio fischeri luxB, Vibrio fischeri luxC, Vibrio fischeri luxD or Vibrio fischeri luxE. Furthermore, a responsive promoter or baseline promoter of the invention (e.g., SEQ ID NOs: 1-41 or 68 or a functional variant thereof) can be fused to a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-luxAB hybrid gene.

The Ca2+ dependent photoprotein Aequorin from Aequorea victoria (Campbell, K., Chemilluminescence; Ellis Horwood: Chichester, England (1988); Ramanathan et al., Anal. Chim. Acta 369: 181-188 (1998); Witkowski et al., Anal. Chem. 66: 1837-1840 (1994); Galvan et al., Anal. Chem. 68:3545-3550 (1996)) can also be fused to a responsive promoter or baseline promoter of the invention (e.g., SEQ ID NOs: 1-41, 52-68 or a functional variant thereof).

The KanMX selectable marker (e.g., from Tn9O3) can also be fused to a responsive promoter or baseline promoter of the invention (e.g., SEQ ID NOs: 1-41, 52-68 or a functional variant thereof). Expression of the KanMX marker, in a cell, confers resistance to G418 (geniticin; Wach et al., Yeast 10:1793-1808 (1994)).

The pat1 (phosphinothricin N-acetyl-transferase) selectable marker can also be fused to a responsive promoter or baseline promoter of the invention (e.g., SEQ ID NOs: 1-41, 52-68 or a functional variant thereof; Goldstein & McCusker, Yeast 15:1541-1553 (1999)). Expression of the pat1 marker, in a cell, confers resistance to bialaphos.

The nat1 (nourseothricin N-acetyl-transferase) selectable marker can also be fused to a responsive promoter or baseline promoter of the invention (e.g., SEQ ID NOs: 1-41, 52-68 or a functional variant thereof, Goldstein & McCusker, Yeast 15:1541-1553 (1999)). Expression of the nat1 marker, in a cell, confers resistance to nourseothricin.

The hph (hygromycin B phosphotransferase) selectable marker can also be fused to a responsive promoter or baseline promoter of the invention (e.g., SEQ ID NOs: 1-41, 52-68 or a functional variant thereof; Goldstein & McCusker, Yeast 15:1541-1553 (1999)). Expression of the nat1 marker, in a cell, confers resistance to hygromycin B.

The Sh ble selectable marker can also be fused to a responsive promoter or baseline promoter of the invention (e.g., SEQ ID NOs: 1-41, 52-68 or a functional variant thereof). Expression of the Sh ble marker, in a cell, confers resistance to Zeocin™ (Phleomycin D1; Johansson & Hahn-Hagerdal, Yeast 19: 225-231 (2002)).

Other reporter genes which may be fused to a responsive promoter or baseline promoter of the invention (e.g., SEQ ID NOs: 1-41, 52-68 or a functional variant thereof) include β-lactamase, for example, as described in Cartwright et al. (Yeast 10(4):497-508 (1994)) wherein mature β-lactamase was fused to two segments of the K1 preprotoxin.

Furthermore, the E. coli β-glucuronidase gene (GUS) can be fused to a responsive promoter or baseline promoter of the invention (e.g., SEQ ID NOs: 1-41, 52-68 or a functional variant thereof) and used as a reporter gene, for example, in S. cerevisiae (Marathe et al., Gene. 154(1):105-107 (1995)).

Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) can be fused to a responsive promoter or baseline promoter of the invention (e.g., SEQ ID NOs: 1-41, 52-68 or a functional variant thereof). CAT radioassays are described, for example, by Sleigh (Anal. Biochem. 156(1):251-256 (1986)) and a non-radioactive CAT assay is described by Young et al. (Anal. Biochem. 197(2):401-407 (1991)).

Construction of responsive promoter/reporter fusions and baseline promoter/reporter fusions can be accomplished using conventional molecular biological techniques which are commonly known in the art. For example, Myers et al. (Gene. 1986;45(3):299-3 10) disclose methods for fusing various promoters for driving the expression of the E. coli lacZ gene.

Expression of reporters, such as green fluorescent protein, luciferase or β-galactosidase (lacZ) or any other reporter mentioned herein, can be easily determined using any of the numerous assays which are conventional and very well known in the art. For example, Billinton et al. (Biosens. Bioelectron. 13(7-8): 831-8) describe the development of a green fluorescent protein reporter in yeast. Dixon et al. (J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 62(2-3): 165-71) describe an assay for determination of lacZ expression in yeast. El Barkani et al. (Gene 246(1-2): 151-155 (2000)) describe Candida glabrata shuttle vectors suitable for translational fusions to lacZ and use of β-galactosidase as a reporter of gene expression.” Greer et al. (Luminescence 17(1): 43-74 (2002)) reviews the use of luciferase in expression assays. Leskinen et al. (Yeast 20(13): 1109-13 (2003)) describes a one-step measurement of firefly luciferase activity in yeast. Marathe et al. (Gene 154(1): 105-7 (1995)) and Gallagher et al. (“Quantiation of GUS activity by fluorometry” In: GUS Protocols: Using GUS gene as a reporter of gene expression. Academic Press, San Diego, Calif. (1992), pp.47-59) discloses methods for assaying GUS reporter gene expression. Pignatelli et al. (Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem. 27(Pt 2): 81-88 (1998)) describe the expression and secretion of β-galactosidase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using the signal sequences of GgpI. Srikantha et al. (J Bacteriol 178(1): 121-9 (1996)) describes the use of Renilla reniformis luciferase as a reporter gene in Candida albicans. Vanoni et al. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 164(3): 1331-8 (1989)) describes the use of E. coli β-galactosidase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using the signal sequence from the glucoamylase-encoding STA2 gene.

Alternatively, there are several auxotrophic reporters which may be fused to a responsive promoter or baseline promoter of the invention (e.g., SEQ ID NOs: 1-41, 52-68 or a functional variant thereof). For example, ADE2, URA3, HIS3, LYS2, TRP1 or LEU2 can be fused to the responsive promoter and introduced into a cell lacking an endogenous copy of the gene (e.g., comprising a ura3-52, his3-D1, leu2-D1, trpl-D1 or lys2-201 mutation). In general activation of auxotrophic reporter genes can be determined, in a cell lacking an endogenous copy of the auxotrophic marker, by growing the cell on media lacking the nutrient whose cellular synthesis is dependent on the auxotrophic reporter gene. In this case, lack of expression of the auxotrophic marker (e.g., because of lack of activation of the responsive promoter-auxotrophic marker hybrid) will result in no growth; expression of the auxotrophic marker (e.g., because of activation of the responsive promoter-auxotrophic marker hybrid) will result in growth. For example, activation of the markers ADE2, URA3, HIS3, LYS2, TRP1 or LEU2 can be assayed on media lacking adenine, uracil, histidine, lysine, tryptophan or leucine, respectively. In another embodiment, expression of ADE2 can be conveniently determined by observing the color of S. cerevisiae colonies containing the responsive promoter-ADE2 hybrid. Specifically, ade2S. cerevisiae cells and colonies exhibit a red color phenotype. Expression of ADE2 (e.g., because of activation of the responsive promoter-ADE2 hybrid), in such a cell, will result in the expression of a white color phenotype.

In an embodiment of the present invention, substances which lead to a decrease in the expression level from a responsive promoter of the invention can be negatively selected for. For example, cell grown in the present of substance that decreases the expression from a responsive promoter/URA3 hybrid can be selected for by growth in the presence of 5-fluoroorotic acid (5-FOA). In other embodiments of the invention, cells in which responsive promoter/HIS3 hybrid expression is decreased, in response to a substance, can be selected for by growing the cells in the presence of 3-azatriazole. In yet another embodiment of the invention, cells in which responsive promoter/LYS2 hybrid expression is decreased, in response to a substance, can be selected for by growing the cells in the presence of DL-alpha-aminoadipic acid. In a further embodiment of the invention, cells in which responsive promoter/CYH2 hybrid expression is decreased, in response to a substance, can be selected for by growing the cells in the presence of cycloheximide. In another embodiment of the invention, cells in which responsive promoter/CAN1 hybrid expression is decreased, in response to a substance, can be selected for by growing the cells in the presence of canavinine.

Transformation and Growth of Fungal Cells

Heterologous nucleic acids can be introduced into host yeast cells by any of a number of known methods. These methods include, but are not limited to, spheroplast transformation (Beggs, Nature 275:104 (1975); Cregg et al., Mol. Cell. Biol. 5:3376 (1985)), lithium transformation (Hiep et al., Yeast 9:1189-1197 (1993); Bogdanova et al., Yeast 11:343 (1995)), polyethylene glycol transformation (Kleve et al., Gene 25:333-341 (1983); Dohmen et al., Yeast 7:691-692 (1991); Dohmen et al., Yeast 7:691-692 (1991)), or electroporation.

Yeast can be grown on rich media or synthetic dropout media. Drop-out media is synthetic media containing all essential nutrients except for one or more. Drop-out media is commonly used for selection of plasmids that contain genes for synthesis of these components. For example, drop-out media lacking histidine can be used to select for his3 host cells containing a plasmid carrying a complementing HIS3 gene. A similar method can be employed for selecting for fungal cells carrying a plasmid containing the ADE2, URA3, LYS2, TRP1 or LEU2 gene, or any combination thereof. For example, one liter of synthetic complete media (with no nutrients dropped out) includes 20 g dextrose, 6.7 g yeast nitrogen base without amino acids and 0.79 g Complete Supplement Mixture CSM (Adenine 10 mg/liter; Arginine 50 mg/liter; Aspartic Acid 80 mg/liter; Histidine 20 mg/liter; Isoleucine 50 mg/liter; Leucine 100 mg/liter; Lysine 50 mg/liter; Methionine 20 mg/liter; Phenylalanine 50 mg/liter; Threonine 100 mg/liter; Tryptophan 50 mg/liter; Tyrosine 50 mg/liter; Uracil 20 mg/liter; Valine 140 mg/liter; Qbiogene; Carlsbad, Calif.). A commonly used “rich media” is YPD (Yeast-Peptone-Dextrose) or 1% yeast extract, 2% peptone, 2% dextrose. For solid media, 2% agar is included.

EXAMPLES

The following examples are provided to more clearly describe the present invention and should not be construed to limit the scope of the invention in any way. Any and all reagents (e.g., plasmids, primers, cells) described herein form part of the present invention along with any methods described herein.

Example 1

Identification of Biomarkers

In this example, genes identified by “Affymetrix Microarray” (Affymetrix, Inc.; Santa Clara, Calif.) technology are used as biomarkers to identify compounds that affect a target protein. By fusing a biomarker promoter to a reporter gene, assays can be developed to screen for antifungal compounds. In addition, several “baseline promoters” have been identified which exhibit a constant level of expression when temperature is shifted.

Yeast temperature-sensitive shift. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were grown at 30° C. in YPD (1% yeast extract, 2% peptone, 2% glucose). S. cerevisiae wild type WT1554 and ts-mutant strains were streaked out from permanent stock and grown on YPD plates (including 2% agar) at 30° C. until colonies formed. Several colonies were picked to start 10 ml cultures, grown up overnight at 30° C. and used to inoculate 25 mls of 30° C. YPD to an OD of 0.15. Cultures were incubated at 30° C. for 2 hrs and then heat shifted to 37° C. by the addition of 25 mls of 46° C. YPD. Strains were grown for 2 hr, 4 hr, 6 hrs and cells were collected for determination of Affymetrix Microarray expression profiles. Cells were harvested by centrifugation for 3 minutes at 3500 rpm, resuspend in 6 ml of ice cold ddH2O centrifuged for 3 minutes at 3500 rpm, the supernatant discarded and the cell pellet flash frozen in a dry ice ethanol bath. Pellets were stored at −80° C. until total RNA preparation.

Isolation of Saccliaromyces cerevisiae total RNA. Total RNA was isolated with slight modifications by the method of Schmitt et al. (Nucleic Acids Res. 18(10):3091-3092 (1990)). Cell pellets were removed from the −80° C. freezer and 1.6 ml of pre-warmed 65° C. acid phenol-chloroform-isoamylalcohol (50:50: 1, pH4.7; (Sigma P-1944) and 1.6 ml of TES (10 mM Tris pH 7.5, 10 mM EDTA, 0.5% SDS) were added and the pellet was resuspended by vortexing. Tubes were incubated at 65° C. in a waterbath for 1 hour with vortexing for 20 seconds every 10 minutes. The mixture was transferred to Phaselock tubes (Eppendorf) and centrifuged for 20 minutes at room temperature. Mixtures were re-extracted with 750 μl of acid phenol-chloroform-isoamylalcohol per tube, recentrifuged then extracted with 750 μl 24:1 chloroform:Isoamyl alcohol (Sigma C-0549) and centrifuged for 10 minutes room temperature. The aqueous phase was transferred to an eppendorf tube and total RNA was precipitated by the addition of 50 μl of 3M Sodium acetate (NaOAc) pH 5.2 and 1 ml of 100% EtOH followed by incubation at −20° C. for ½ hr. Total RNA pellets were washed with 500 μl of 80% ETOH and the pellet was resuspended in 50 μl of 65° C. RNAsecure (Ambion; Austin, Tex.) and incubated for 10 min at 65° C. to inactivate RNAses. Total RNA quality and quantity was determined by measurement of the OD260/OD280 absorbance ratio followed by analysis of RNA utilizing Agilent RNA chips. RNA was stored at −80° C. prior to Affymetrix labeling and hybridization.

Affymetrix total RNA labeling and Affymetrix Yeast Genome YG_S98 microarray probing. Polynucleotide Expression Profiling. Total S. cerevisiae RNA from each RNA sample (see supra) was used to prepare biotinylated target RNA according to the Affymetrix Genechip® Expression Analysis Technical Manual, 2003. (www.affymetrix.com/support/technical/manual/ expression_manual.affx). Briefly, 5 μg of total RNA was used to generate first-strand cDNA by using a T7-linked oligo(dT) primer. After second-strand synthesis probes were generated by in vitro transcription with biotinylated UTP and CTP (Enzo Diagnostics). Biotinylated probes were hybridized to Affymetrix Yeast YG_S98 DNA Microarrays (Affymetrix Inc., Santa Clara, Calif.). Target cDNA generated from each sample were then processed according to the manufacturer's recommended procedures using an Affymetrix GeneChip Instrument System (www.affymetrix.com/support/technical/manual /expression_manual.affx). Briefly, spike controls were added to 5 μg fragmented cRNA before overnight hybridization to Affymetrix Yeast Genome YG_S98 microarrays. Microarrays were then washed and stained with streptavidin-phycoerythrin, before being scanned on an Affymetrix GeneChip scanner. The GeneChip® Yeast Genome YG_S98 Array contains probe sets for approximately 6,400 S. cerevisiae (S288C strain) genes identified in the Saccharomyces Genome Database. This array also contains approximately 600 additional probe sets representing putative open reading frames (ORFs) identified by SAGE analysis, mitochondrial proteins, TY proteins, plasmids, and a small number of ORFs for strains other than S288C (Affymetrix Santa Clara, Calif.). Scanned image files were inspected for artifacts and analyzed with GeneChip® Expression Analysis software (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, Calif.). Each chip was scaled to 150 (see, Affymetrix, Genechip® Expression Analysis Technical Manual, 2003) to account for minor differences in microarray hybridization intensity, so that overall expression levels for each yeast strain could be compared.

Identification of up-regulated gene biomarkers in heat shifted S. cerevisiae ts-alleles by analysis of Affymetrix microarrays by GeneSpring analysis software (Silicon Genetics). Affymetrix Yeast Genome YG_S98 microarray data were loaded onto the GeneSpring analysis software program 6.0 (Silicon Genetics, Redwood City, Calif.). Microarray data from temperature shifted S. cerevisiae ts-alleles from the 2, 4, and 6 hr time-points (see supra) were normalized to S. cerevisiae wild type strain MS1554 from 2, 4, and 6 hr time-points. Up-regulated gene biomarkers were identified in S. cerevisiae ts-alleles that showed a fold increase in expression at a single time-point as compared to wild-type S. cerevisiae strain MS 1554. Data were further analyzed to identify up-regulated gene biomarkers that showed up-regulation in expression at 2, 4, and 6 hr time-points by graphical analysis of identified genes. In addition genes that showed up-regulation in expression were analyzed in all ts-alleles to identify genes that were uniquely up-regulated in expression in a single ts-allele or up-regulated in a group of ts-alleles.

Plasmids and Constructs.

(a) Generation PHO5 Signal Sequence Tagged Renilla Luciferase

PSPRT17 (Cyc1A term to HO-poly-HO vector). The cyc1 A terminator (REF) was PCR amplified as a 371 bp fragment from pYES2 (Invitrogen) using PCR primers PR131 (5′ tttgcgcgcGGGCCGCATCATGTAATTAGT 3′) (SEQ ID NO: 69) and PR132 (5′ aaaagatctGACCGA GCGCAGCGAGTCAGT 3′) (SEQ ID NO: 70) designed to BssHII and BglII. and cloned into the TOPO-TA to yield pSPRT19. The 371 bp fragment from pSPRT19 was ligated to BssHII and BglII. digested HO-poly-HO (Voth et al., Nuc. Acid Res. 29(12): e59 (2001)) to yield pSPRT17.

pSPRT47 (SEQ ID NO: 85) (Renilla cloned into PSPRT17). The renilla luciferase gene was amplified by PCR as a 1004 bp fragment amplified from phRG-B (Promega) using primers PR161 (5′ CCCATGTTAATTAAATCTGTTGTTTATTCAATTTTAGCCGCTTCTTTGGCCAAT GCAGGTGCTTCCAAGGTGTACGACCCCGA 3′) (SEQ ID NO: 71) and PR162 (5′ AAAGGCGCGCCTTACTGCTCGTCTTCAGCAC 3′) (SEQ ID NO: 72), designed to contain the PHO5 signal sequence (MLIKSVVYSILAASLANAG) (SEQ ID NO: 73) and PacI/AscI ends. cloned into the TOPO-TA to yield pSPRT27. The PacI/AscI fragment from pSPRT27 was ligated to PacI/BssHII digested pSPRT17 to yield pSPRT47. The PacI site was designed to create an ATG start codon fusion with PacI adapted promoters. This added LI to the signal sequence. The PHO5 tagged luciferase was designated PHO5.hRluc.

pSPRT168 (Ga11 promoter PHO5.hRluc). The GAL1 promoter region was PCR amplified as a BamHI/PacI 474 bp fragment using PCR primers PR172 (5′ TTTGGATCCACGGATTAGAAGCCGCCGAGCG 3′) (SEQ ID NO: 74) and PR 173B (5′ CCCTTAATTAACATGGTTTTTTCTCCTTGACGTTA 3′) (SEQ ID NO: 75) cloned into the TOPO-TA to yield pSPRT33B. The BamHI/PacI fragment was ligated to BamHI/PacI digested pSPRT47 to yield pSPRT167. pSPRT167 was introduced into S. cerevisiae to yield strain Y167.

pSPRT207 (YHR082C promoter PHO5.hRluc). The YHR082C promoter was PCR amplified as a 1.1 kb BamHI/PacI fragment using PCR primers PR207 (5′ TTTGGATCCTGTGCACGATGGCTTCGTTTTAGCC 3′) (SEQ ID NO: 76) and PR208 (5′ CTTAATTAACATCGAGTTTCAAAAAATTGTAAG 3′) (SEQ ID NO: 77) and cloned into the TOPO-TA to yield pTOPO207. The 1.1 kb BamHI/PacI fragment from pSPRT207TOPO was ligated to BamHI/PacI digested pSPRT47 to yield pSPRT207. pSPRT207 was introduced into S. cerevisiae to yield strain Y207.

pSPRT211 (ERG10 promoter PHO5.hRluc). The ERG10 promoter was PCR amplified as a 397bp BamHI/PacI fragment using PCR primers PR213 (5′ CCCGGATCCTCTACGATATATCCTGTAAATAG 3′) (SEQ ID NO: 78) and PR214 (5′ CTTAATTAACATTTTGAGTACGTCTAATCTGTAT 3′) (SEQ ID NO: 79) and cloned into the TOPO-TA to yield pTOPO211. The 397 bp BamHI/PacI fragment from pSPRT213TOPO was ligated to BamHI/PacI digested pSPRT47 to yield pSPRT211. pSPRT211 was introduced into S. cerevisiae to yield strain Y2 11.

(b) Generation PHO5 Signal Sequence Tagged FireFly Luciferase

pSPRT50 (SEQ ID NO: 86) (Firefly luciferase cloned into pSPRT17). The firefly luciferase gene was PCR as a 1710 bp bp fragment amplified from pGL2-Basic (Promega; Madison, Wis.) using primers PR167 (5′ CCCATGGGATCCAAATCTGTTGTTTATTCAATTTTA GCCGCTTCTTTGGCCAATGCAGGTGAAGACGCCAAAAACATAAAGAAA 3′) (SEQ ID NO: 80) and PR168SLK (5′ AAAGGCGCGCCTTACTTTCCGCCCTTCTTGGCCT 3′) (SEQ ID NO: 81), designed to contain the PHO5 signal sequence ( MLIKSVVYSILAASLANAG) (SEQ ID NO: 82) and BamHI/AscI ends and remove the C-terminal SLK peroxisomal targeting sequence (Leskinen et al., Yeast 20(13):1109-1113 (2003)). This fragment was cloned into the TOPO-TA to yield pSPRT50. The BamHI/AscI fragment from pSPRT50 was ligated to BamHI/BssHII digested pSPRT17 to yield pSPRT50. The BamHI site was designed to create an ATG start codon fusion with BamHI adapted promoters. The PHO5 tagged firefly luciferase was designated PHO5.firefly.

pSPRT170 (Gall promoter PHO5.firefly). The Galp1 promoter region was PCR amplified as a BamHI 472 bp fragment using PCR primers PR174 (5′ TTTGGATCCACGGATTAGAAGCCGCCGAGCG 3′) (SEQ ID NO: 83) and PR 175B (5′ TTTGGATCCCATGGTTTTTTCTCCTTGACGTTA 3′) (SEQ ID NO: 84) cloned into the TOPO-TA to yield pTOPO 174. The BamHI fragment was ligated to BamHI digested pSPRT50 to yield pSPRT170. pSPRT170 was introduced into S. cerevisiae to yield strain Y170.

TABLE 2 Biomarkers identified. Essential Fold Gene Function Affy ID 2, 4, or 6 hr RP Synonym Function YCR052W Chromatin 8141_AT 15 YOR387C remodeling complex YBR156C Mitotic spindle protein 8141_AT 5 YOR387C YDR166C Exocyst complex 9445_AT 13 YMR175W SIP18 Salt induced protein YDR166C Exocyst complex 5323_AT YFR026C YDR166C Exocyst complex 11185_AT 17 YJL153C INO1 L-myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase YKR025W RNA polymerase III 7810_AT 9.2 YPL033C subunit YKR025W RNA polymerase III 8593_AT 7.0 YOL058W ARG1 Arginosuccinate synthetase subunit YDL105W 8276_AT 25 YOR255W YDL105W 6215_AT 14 YDR250C YDL105W 6007_AT 9 YDR446W ECM11 ExtraCellular Mutant YDL105W 5915_AT 8 YDR536W STL1 sugar transporter-like protein YDR016C spindle integrit, 8276_AT 16 YOR255W kinetochore YDR016C spindle integrit, 6710_AT 9 YDL243C AAD4 Putative aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase kinetochore YDR016C spindle integrit, 6221_AT 9 YDR256C CTA1 Catalase A kinetochore YDR016C spindle integrit, 6215_AT 9 YDR250C kinetochore YDR016C spindle integrit, 6007_AT 11 YDR446W ECM11 posible chromatin structure maint kinetochore YDR016C spindle integrit, 5915_AT 10 YDR536W STL1 sugar transporter-like protein kinetochore YNL131W Translocase 5410_F_AT 5.115 YFL020C PAU5 member of the seripauperin Mitochondrial proteinVgene family (see Gene class membrane PAU) YDR464W Control expression of 7953_AT 5.8 YPL205C spliceosome YPL128C TTAGGG repeat 5220_AT 13.5 YGL205W POX1 fatty-acyl coenzyme A oxidase binding factor YLR291C Translational initiation 5125_AT 8.9 YGL117W factor YLR291C Translational initiation 4503_AT 8.4 YHR029C factor YLR291C Translational initiation 9771_AT 5.8 YML116W ATR1 predicted protein is very hydrophobic, factor has many membrane-spanning regions, several potential glycosylation sites, potential ATP-binding site YLR291C Translational initiation 10902_AT 5.4 YJR109C CPA2 carbamyl phosphate synthetase factor YLR291C Translational initiation 6902_AT 5.3 YCL030C HIS4 histidinol dehydrogenase factor YLR293C Nuclear organization 10008_AT 71.13 YLR338W YLR293C Nuclear organization 4039_AT 38.90 YIL066W-A RNR3 Ribonucleotide reductase YLR293C Nuclear organization 8939_AT 32.54 YNL093W YPT53 rab5-like GTPase YLR293C Nuclear organization 6215_AT 25.45 YDR250C YLR293C Nuclear organization 9962_AT 12.40 YLR381W Kinetochore protein YLR293C Nuclear organization 10714_AT 10.96 YKL159C Regulator of calcineurnin YLR293C Nuclear organization 4159_AT 10.96 YIL058W YLR293C Nuclear organization 10554_AT 9.85 YKR037C Spindle pole component YDR499W Telomere Checkpoint 10008_AT 125.0 YLR338W YDR499W Telomere Checkpoint 6215_AT 43.4 YDR250C YDR499W Telomere Checkpoint 4039_AT 42.8 YIL066W-A RNR3 Ribonucleotide reductase YDR499W Telomere Checkpoint 9160_AT 28.9 YNL279W Pheromone-regulated multispanning YDR499W Telomere Checkpoint 8939_AT 22.2 YNL093W YPT53 rab5-like GTPase sorting and endocytosis YDR499W Telomere Checkpoint 9962_AT 15.3 YLR381W Kinetochore protein YDR499W Telomere Checkpoint 10554_AT 9.7 YKR037C Spindle pole component YDR499W Telomere Checkpoint 8505_AT 9.6 YOR032C HMS1 myc-family transcription factor homolog YBR102C exocyst complex 10008_AT 109.7 YLR338W YBR102C exocyst complex 9160_AT 58.7 YNL279W Pheromone-regulated multispanning YBR102C exocyst complex 6215_AT 53.7 YDR250C YBR102C exocyst complex 4039_AT 37.5 YIL066W-A RNR3 Ribonucleotide reductase YBR102C exocyst complex 8939_AT 27.6 YNL093W YPT53 rab5-like GTPase YGL225W May regulate Golgi 9293_AT 6.3 YML058W SML1 Suppressor of mec lethality function YGR065C Vitamin H transporter 9309_AT 5.49 YMR303C ADH2 alcohol dehydrogenase II YML091C Mitochondrial RNase P 11185_AT 23.0 YJL153C INO1 L-myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase YML091C Mitochondrial RNase P 10256_AT 16.2 YLR092W SUL2 high affinity sulfate permease YML091C Mitochondrial RNase P 5428_AT 15.8 YFL052W YML091C Mitochondrial RNase P 4098_AT 5.2 YIR017C MET28 Transcriptional activator of sulfur amino acid metabolism YML091C Mitochondrial RNase P 10414_AT 4.2 YLL062C YDR081C Regulates trans of 10008_AT 112 YLR338W PDC1, PDC5 YDR081C Regulates trans of 6215_AT 42 YDR250C PDC1, PDC5 YDR081C Regulates trans of 4039_AT 35 YIL066W RNR3 Ribonucleotide reductase subunit PDC1, PDC5 YDR081C Regulates trans of 8939_AT 21 YNL093W YPT53 rab5-like GTPase PDC1, PDC5 YMR033W Transcriptional 10008_AT 57 YLR338W regulation YMR033W Transcriptional 6215_AT 34 YDR250C regulation YMR033W Transcriptional 4039_AT 22 YIL066W-A RNR3 Ribonucleotide reductase subunit regulation YMR033W Transcriptional 9288_S_AT 19.6 YMR323W regulation YMR033W Transcriptional 7944_AT 12 YPL171C OYE3 DAD(P)H dehydrogenase regulation YMR033W Transcriptional 5636_AT 9 YER065C ICL1 Isocitrate lyase regulation YMR033W Transcriptional 6349_AT 9 YDR114C regulation

Responsive promoters identified in the experiments set forth above are as follows:

>YOR387C Chr 15 reverse complement (SEQ ID NO: 1) GCCAGGGAAGCCTATATCTGATTCCCTGTTTCATAATCCAATGCAGCCACTAGCTTATAA TTATTTGAACTATTTGTCGAACATCACAGTAATAAAATCCCCAGAAAGTTCCACTTGCTG CATATTGGCACCTGTTGATTCACTCTCCATCACTTTTTTGTTAGCCGCCCAGCCTAGAAA GTCTTTAAATACATCTGAAATTTTTTTTTTTTTAACAGTGCACCCGTGCATCATACCTCA TGCAAGGTACCTTTTTTTCTCAAAGGTATTGTCTTCCATTGAAGTGGCACTATGGCATGA TGAACCCTGAGCATTTCTGAATTCAACAGAACCAAATTGTCCAGAAATAAATCTGTCCGA CATGAATTATGAAACTTTTTTTCAATTAAGTGAAGAGAATTTTGCAGCGTCTTACCATTA TTTTGACCCATTGGTCGCATGTTTGCGCTTTGACTTCGAGAACCATGTTAAAGCTTACTT GTACGACAACCAATGAAGTATATTACGGCAGTTTTTTTGGACTGGGTCAAAAAAAGTGTT GCATAATCAAATCAGGAACACATTAAAATGTTGTAAAATTTGTCTTAGTATCACCTGAGT GGTTATTCATTACGTACTACTGTCAAAATATTCGGATCTTTCCTAAACGGGCTTTTGAAT TAGTGTTGCTTCTATTCCTGGAATGGAAGGTAATACTTTCATGCATTCTCGCTTTTCGGA CTTTTAACAATAAATTAAAAACAATGATACTTTCATCAACTACCTATACACCCTGCGGGT CAATTATTTTTTTTTCGAATAACCGCTGAGGTTGGAAATATAGAAACATATTCCAGATCT GTATTTTCAGTTGCTAGAAAAAGGTTAATATAATCATTAAGGTTTTCAGCATATAACAGG TATAATTGATATATAAGCATCGTAATTTTCATTCAAAATGGAGAGCTACTGCTTCTGATA GATTGTACAATCTCAAGAAATCAAGAACAACAACCATACCATGAGT >YMR175W Chr 13 (SEQ ID NO: 2) TTGTGTTTAGACTTAAGTATGAAAATTTTATGTATGAGCTGTGGCTATGTATCCGCTGGC AAATAGGTCTGCTTTTTCTACACTTTCCACCCTCAACCTAACAGAGCCCGCTGGCACAAA TAATCGATAGTAGGACAACAGAGCTACTCCTTCTTATGCCCCGCCCCTTTGAGCTTGTTG TATTGCTCTTGATAGTTGTGTTTTTCACTTTCATCAGCATCGGTAGTCTTGCCGTCCTTG TCTTGACTAGCCATTTTCTTAAAAGCGTCACTCACTACCTTTGCATCGCCCTGCAATTTT TCCTTTGAGCTCTGAAATATTTCGCTCACTTTTTGTTGGTCTGTATTCATTCTGGATGTC TTGGTTGTAGAAATTTCTTTTATTGGTTCATTAAAGTCAAGGTAAATGGCGAGAACTAGA ATAGAGTTTTATTCTTTTTACCGTTATATAGATAATTCTAGCCGGGGGCGGTCGCCCCTG AGATTCCCGACATCAGTAAGACATAGTACTGTACGATTACTGTACGATTAATCTATCCAC TTCAGATGTTCAACAATTCCTTTTGGCATTACGTATTAATACTTCATAGGATCGGCACCC TCCCTTAAGCCTCCCCTAAATGCTTTCGGTACCCCTTTAAGACAACTATCTCTTAACCTT CTGTATTTACTTGCATGTTACGTTGAGTCTCATTGGAGGTTTGCATCATATGTTTAGGTT TTTTTGGAAACGTGGACGGCTCATAGTGATTGGTAAATGGGAGTTACGAATAAACGTATC TTAAAGGGAGCGGTATGTAAAATGGATAGATGATCATGAATACAGTACGAGGTGTAAAGA ATGATGGGACTGAGAGGGCAATTATCATCCCTCAGAATCAACATCACAAACATATATAAA GCTCCCAATTCTGCCCCAAAGTTTTGTCCCTAGGCATTTTTAATCTTTGTATCTGTGCTC TTTACTTTAGTAGAAAGGTATATAAAAAAGTATAGTCAAGATG >YFR026C Chr 6 reverse complement (SEQ ID NO: 3) GAGGTTTCAACATGCCAACAATGGAAGTGGTTAAGAGACGTTTTCTGGTTTCTGGGCAGC TGTTACATAGAATCTCTGATTTACATGCTCAAGTATTCGCAAAGATCGGTATGATGGGAA AATAGGTGAATTTTGGGATAATGACTGAGATTATACCGTTGTTAATGCTATAATATTAAT TATACAGAATATATTAGAAGTTCTCCTCGAGGATATGGGAACCCACAGAAGCGAATCGAT GTTTCTACATAAAAGAAAAAAATAATCTCATTTTATCTTCGGTTTTGAATCTTTTCATTT TTTTTTCCTATTACATTATCAATTCTGGCATTTCAGTGTTTATAAAAAGATCAAATTGCT GTTTGAAACTCATTGCGCTAATTCCATAATTTTGCACCATGTATGCTCATGACTCCATAT AGGACAACATACTGGTAGGAATATTATCAAGTGAACGATAACGGTTCTTCTCCCAACAAG AAGTAAGCCTGGTGAGTGTATTTTGAAGCTTTTTGGAGGGGCGGCCACGGAATAAGATAT GAACACATACTGGCAATTGGGCTGAGATCTGATTACATTGTCGACAGATTCCCATGAAGG TGTTTGAGAGAATTTTGATTGAGTCGTTATACAAATTGCTGTGGACACGTACGCATAAAG TAGTTCGGGCAGCTATGTTTGCCACGTAGTAGCTACAATATTAAGCATAGCAGACTAAAT GCAATTGGCTGTGTTGAAAGAAACTTCTGAACTGAGATTCAAGTAACGTGATTGTGTGCG CCATTTTACACAGGCTGCGCGGCAAATCAAAACCAAAGATACTTCTCCGGAGGTATACGT GTTGCATTTTCAACAGACTATACGAGTTTTTTCTGATCGTTGTATATTTAAGTGCAGCTT GGACTTACAAGCTCTATACTAGGATAATGATCTCATTGGATTCAAGAGAAAGAAACTCTA TACTGGCGCCAAATTAGCAGTGTCAAATTTCGAAAAGGTGATG >YJL153C Chr 10 reverse complement (SEQ ID NO: 4) TTCTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTCTTTTTGGGAACGGGGGAAAAGGTCTCACTAGTATATA AAGGAAAGAGAGTACAGCACGAATGAGCCAGCTGCAGGAAAGGGGCTAGGTTAAAAAATA AAAACCCAGCAGAAAGCAAACAACCAAATATAATTTAGAAATGGACAGAGACCATATTAA TGACCATGACCATCGAATGAGCTATTCCATCAACAAGGACGACTTGTTGTTAATGGTTTT GGCGGTTTTCATTCCCCCAGTGGCCGTCTGGAAGCGTAAGGGTATGTTCAACAGGGATAC ACTATTGAACTTACTTCTCTTCCTACTGTTATTCTTCCCAGCAATCATTCACGCTTGCTA CGTTGTATATGAAACGAGTAGTGAACGTTCGTACGATCTTTCACGCAGACATGCGACTGC GCCCGCCGTAGACCGTGACCTGGAAGCTCACCCTGCAGAGGAATCTCAAGCACAGCCTCC AGCATATGATGAAGACGATGAGGCCGGTGCCGATGTGCCCTTGATGGACAACAAACAACA GCTCTCTTCCGGCCGTACTTAGTGATCGGAACGAGCTCTTTATCACCGTAGTTCTAAATA ACACATAGAGTAAATTATTGCCTTTTTCTTCGTTCCTTTTGTTCTTCACGTCCTTTTTAT GAAATACGTGCCGGTGTTCCGGGGTTGGATGCGGAATCGAAAGTGTTGAATGTGAAATAT GCGGAGGCCAAGTATGCGCTTCGGCGGCTAAATGCGGCATGTGAAAAGTATTGTCTATTT TATCTTCATCCTTCTTTCCCAGAATATTGAACTTATTTAATTCACATGGAGCAGAGAAAG CGCACCTCTGCGTTGGCGGCAATGTTAATTTGAGACGTATATAAATTGGAGCTTTCGTCA CCTTTTTTTGGCTTGTTCTGTTGTCGGGTTCCTAATGTTAGTTTTATCCTTGATTTATTC TGTTTCATTCCCTTTTTTTTCCAGTGAAAAAGAAGTAACAATG >YPL033C Chr 16 reverse complement (SEQ ID NO: 5) GAAGTTACAAATAATAACAACAAAGTTAATAACAGTAGTAGCAACCCTGATATTTCCACC AACTCGGTAGTTCATAACGCAATGCAATTTACAAATACAAACAACAATACAAGTAGCACT GTGGATATAAACGATCCCAAAAATATTGCACCCCCTCCTACAACCTCTGTTTCAGCCCCA AGCACTCCAACCTTGTCCTCATCAAGTCAAATGGCGAATATGGCTTCGCCTAGTACCGAT AATGGTGACAATGAGGAGAAAAATGGTGGTAAGAAGAAGAGATTTGGCCTATTCAAAAAA AAAAATAAATCAAAGAAATAATATCCTTCGACAGCTTAATGAACACGCATGTAAATGTTT TGTAAACAGTTTGTTTTTTCGTTTTTGTATCTGTTAATTTTCTATTATTTATTTTTTTAG TTTTTTTTTGCGGTAGAATTGGGTTATCACTGAATCTATTTTATTTTTTGGGTTGGTTTC TCCCTGTTTTCAGTTTGTTTGAATTGGTGTTTAACAAAATCTGGAATTATTCACTATAAT TATTTCCTCTTTTTAGTTTGACCAAATAAACTCAACTATCTTGTGTTATTTCTTTGTATT ATAGCTTTACACATATTTAACTATCCATACCTTTTACTTTTTGTATATACTGTTAATTTC ATAAAACACGTTTTAGTACCAGAAAATCGTGTCATAGCACCGTTTTAGCAGTGATTTTTA AAATTGTCCAAGGTGCCAATAAATACTGGTGGGAACAACATTTTAATTAGAATAGCTAAA ACCTTCTAAGAAAACTATCCCAGCGTAGAAAGAAAGAAATCTCTATCAGCCGCGCAAGTG CAGTATCTCTTATTTTTGCACGGCCCCGTCGCTATATTGTCACACGCATTTGAATTAGTG ACTCAATAATAATACAGATTTGTGACGTATAAAGAAACCACAGAAAAACTGCGTATGTCC GAAGCACAGGTCCACTAGTAATAGAGCCCAAAAATCTGACATG >YOL058W Chr 15 (SEQ ID NO: 6) AGGTTGCCACATACATGGCCAAGACCGGTAAGTCAGCCTTGGAAGCAGAAAAGGAATTGC TTAACGGTCAATCCGCCCAAGGGATAATCACATGCAGAGAAGTTCACGAGTGGCTACAAA CATGTGAGTTGACCCAAGAATTCCCATTATTCGAGGCAGTCTACCAGATAGTCTACAACA ACGTCCGCATGGAAGACCTACCGGAGATGATTGAAGAGCTAGACATCGATGACGAATAGA CACTCTCCCCCCCCCTCCCCCTCTGATCTTTCCTGTTGCCTCTTTTTCCCCCAACCAATT TATCATTATACACAAGTTCTACAACTACTACTAGTAACATTACTACAGTTATTATAATTT TCTATTCTCTTTTTCTTTAAGAATCTATCATTAACGTTAATTTCTATATATACATAACTA CCATTATACACGCTATTATCGTTTACATATCACATCACCGTTAATGAAAGATACGACACC CTGTACACTAACACAATTAAATAATCGCCATAACCTTTTCTGTTATCTATAGCCCTTAAA GCTGTTTCTTCGAGCTTTTTCACTGCAGTAATTCTCCACATGGGCCCAGCCACTGAGATA AGAGCGCTATGTTAGTCACTACTGACGGCTCTCCAGTCATTTATGTGATTTTTTAGTGAC TCATGTCGCATTTGGCCCGTTTTTTTCCGCTGTCGCAACCTATTTCCATTAACGGTGCCG TATGGAAGAGTCATTTAAAGGCAGGAGAGAGAGATTACTCATCTTCATTGGATCAGATTG ATGACTGCGTACGGCAGATAGTGTAATCTGAGCAGTTGCGAGACCCAGACTGGCACTGTC TCAATAGTATATTAATGGGCATACATTCGTACTCCCTTGTTCTTGCCCACAGTTCTCTCT CTCTTTACTTCTTGTATCTTGTCTCCCCATTGTGCAGCGATAAGGAACATTGTTCTAATA TACACGGATACAAAAGAAATACACATAATTGCATAAAATAATG >YOR255W Chr 15 (SEQ ID NO: 7) CTTAGTATACGATTGTGTTCTTGCCCACCATCTACTAACAAAATATGGCAAGATTAAACC TAGTAGCGCAACATAACAAACCACTAATAATGGAGATGCACTTCCATCTACCAAAAATCT TGGTAGAGCGATACCATGTGAAGTAGATTGTGGGCCATCTGGATGACCGTATTTCAAATA GTTTTGCCTAACCAATTCGTCAGTAAGGGATTCGTAAGCCTTCGTAATCTGAACATAAGT TTCTTCCATCACACTTTTCTCATCAGGTGTTAGGCCCTTTGCTAATTTATCTGGATGAAA TTTAACAGATAATTTTCTATAAGCAGATTTGATGTCTCTATCGGAAGCACTAGTAGAGAT ACCAAGGATTTCATAAGGATCAAATAATTTTGTAGCAGCGTCTTTAATCGCGTCATTACT ATTAATCCTTTGCAGAAGAATTGCAACTAAGATCCAACCCACAATAATTATAATATTTCT CCTGCTCCATATTTTGGACTTCTTATTACTATTTTTATCAAACTTCCTTCTAAATTGTTT GATTTCATCACTGGTGTATTCTTCATTCAAGTTCTTGAAAACTTCCTCATTAAACTCCTT ACTCTTCCCTGAATTCCCATCTTCAGCATTGGCCCCAAAAAAAATTTGGTATATTTGAAG CAGTGTCATAGGCCCGACGACCATCAAGAGCCCCGTTAAAATGAAGGACGGCCACGTCTC ACTAGCCTCATCATACTCGTAATTTGTAGGCATTGTGCTGTAATATGCAGTATATTTATT TTGTTGCGAAGGCCTTCTTTGGTCAATTATAACTGACTATTGTTCCAGTCGCATCTTTTA TTCGTTCAGTGATCTTCGACGTGTTCAAGACAAATTTTTCAGAAAACGCCTTTCCGTAAC GAGTGACCAATTCGCGTTATAAGAGCGATTGTGTCAGTAATGAAGTCAGATTGTGACATT ATAAGCTAAGACGTTAATAACTCAAAATAGAAAAGAAGCATG >YDR250C Chr 4 reverse complement (SEQ ID NO: 8) AAATAAGAGGTTTGGCCAAAACGTGGTCATCCAAGGTTGATGGATTCTTCTCTTCTAATA TTATTAATAATGGATCGAAACATATTTGAGGCAAAGCTAGTTCCCATTCTTTTGCCAAGA AAGCGGAGGGAGAATGATCGTAAAGAGTCACAACGTCCCTAGGAAACAGTTTTTGGAACA ATTTCTGAAATGTATTCAAAATAGGAATAATATCACTTGAATAGCTGTTTTCGTGAACGG ATGTCGTTTGACCGATCGAAACAGAAAAGGATTTGGCATTTGCAGTCGTGAACTGTTTGT ATGAGCCATTGTCCAACCGTCTTATGTCATAATCGGTGAAAATGCTGAAAATATTTGACA GCGAAAGATCAACTGAAGCCTTGATGAATGGCTCCAAATATATAAACCCGCTACTTTCAA ATAGTATCTTTGTTGTCTTATTCATCATAGGTTTTATATCTCTCAATACCTGCGGGATTT CTTGCAGTGAAGACGCACTCATTATTATCAAGTCGAATACCAAGCCACCATTTTCATTAT TAAGGTCTACTAAATCTAGGAGCGATTGGAAATGGTTTTGAATCTGAAACCGTTCCGTCC CATAAAATAGTGAACTAACCTCGTAGTTGGCATTTTTTGAGTTGTTCACAAGATAAAATT CTATATTTTTGGCATGTTGAAACCTGGATGTGTACAGAATGAGATTTGGGTGATCTCCGC ATACCAAAACCCTTAATGCAGATGTCATTATTCAATATACCTATCGCGAGATATGCCGGG AATAAAATGTAGGAAACAAAAAGAAAAATATATGCACAGTAGTTCAAACAGAATAGAAAT GACGGAGAGCAAATATTTGGGTAGAATCACAGACTTTAGTGTTGGTTACAAGCTTTTCGA ATGGATGTAGTTTGTAATCAAAGGACACTAATAATAGCGAAAAAAAAAAGGGCAAGTATG TTGGCAGTCGCCTCTTTTTCAATTTAGCGGTAAGTTTTTAATG >YDR44GW Chr 4 (SEQ ID NO: 9) CGCAAATGATGAGAAATAGTCATCTAAATTAGTGGAAGCTGAAACGCAAGGATTGATAAT GTAATAGGATCAATGAATATTAACATATAAAACGATGATAATAATATTTATAGAATTGTG TAGAATTGCAGATTCCCTTTTATGGATTCCTAAATCCTCGAGGAGAACTTCTAGTATATC TACATACCTAATATTATAGCCTTAATCACAATGGAATCCCAACAATTACATCAAAATCCA CATTCTCTACATTACTAGTATATTATCATATGCGGTTTAAGAAAATGGTATAAAGATTAA GAAACAGTCATGAAAATTTAGTGAAGCTGAAATGCCAGTATTGATAATACGATAGAATAA TGAATGACAAAGTATATAAGGAAGATGAAGTAACATTATTATGGAGAACTATCGACTCCC TTTTGTGAATTTCTATATCCTCAAGGAGAATTGCTTGTATACTATGTATATATAATATTA TAACCCTTGACAACAATGGAATAATTAGTCCTTAAACGTTAGACTGGCTGGGACAGCACG ACCTCTGTTGGCTAATTTTACTTTTCCCACAACCGTAGATCTTGATTTCATGACTGTTTT CGTGGTAATGTCCGAATGATACATATATAAGTTATATGCTTTCACTTTATAAGTATTAGC GTTTTTACTCACCATCCACTGCTTTGAGAAGATGTGGTCAGCAACCACGCAATACATCAC ATATTTTGGCACGGGTGATGTACCGATCTAATGGCTAAGCTTCCTTTTGGAAGCTGATAG AGATCCAGATTTGCATCTCTATCGCTATTGTCGTCATCGACACTGCTCACTTAGTGCTGC AGGTAAATTCCGTTTTTTTCCAAATTAATATTTATGAACGTTATGATGTCAAGTTTTTTC AAGAAGTAATTATCCGCGAAAAAAAGAATATAAAAAATACAAATGTGCATAGATCCTCAC ATAGTATACAACTAAAAAGCAAACAAAAGAACATCCTCAAATG >YDR536W Chr 4 (SEQ ID NO: 10) CAATGATTCTGAAATACTCCTTTTACAACCTTTGCAAAGATAATGTCTTTCAGTCTGATA TTACGAGCGACCTAGAACCACTAATCCATATTCTTCATTCAACTTACTCCATTTTCCTTG GCAAACAATGCCCCACAATCATATACGTCATAACTATAAGGGATATGTCTGGAATGCGGC CAAGATAGAATTAAAGGGCTGCAGAACACCACTACTGATACTCATTGCCAAGGCTAGGAG GCACCATCCGTTTCATTTTCTTTGAGGTAAGCCAATCATGAAATAGTATACACATCCATA ACGGACGTACGGACGAAATAAGTGCCGTTGTCCCACTATTCCACCGCATTTGGCCCATTT GGCTCACTTTGACTCAACTTGCGTCATTTTAACTGATATGAAGGGTCCGACTTTGTCCTT TTTCGGCCACCGCATACCCCACGGCGATGCCTCCGCTACCTGCATTTGAGTAGCATCTCC GTTTCGCGGGGTATTCGGCGCTACGTCGCCTGTTCGAGCGGCTCTGTTCGTTGCATGAAA CTAAAATAAGCGGAAAGTGTCCAGCCATCCACTACGTCAGAAAGAAATAATGGTTGTACA CTGTTTCTCGGCTATATACCGTTTTTGGTTGGTTAATCCTCGCCAGGTGCAGCTATTGCG CTTGGCTGCTTCGCGATAGTAGTAATCTGAGAAAGTGCAGATCCCGGTAAGGGAAACACT TTTGGTTCACCTTTGATAGGGCTTTCATTGGGGCATTCGTAACAAAAAGGAAGTAGATAG AGAAATTGAGAAAGCTTAAGTGAGATGTTTTAGCTTCAATTTTGTCCCCTTCAACGCTGC TTGGCCTTAGAGGGTCAGAATTGCAGTTCAGGAGTAGTCACACTCATAGTATATAAACAA GCCCTTTATTGATTTTGAATAATTATTTTGTATACGTGTTCTAGCATACAAGTTAGAATA AATAAAAAATAGAAAAATAGAACATAGAAAGTTTTAGACCATG >YOR255W Chr 15 (SEQ ID NO: 11) CTTAGTATACGATTGTGTTCTTGCCCACCATCTACTAACAAAATATGGCAAGATTAAACC TAGTAGCGCAACATAACAAACCACTAATAATGGAGATGCACTTCCATCTACCAAAAATCT TGGTAGAGCGATACCATGTGAAGTAGATTGTGGGCCATCTGGATGACCGTATTTCAAATA GTTTTGCCTAACCAATTCGTCAGTAAGGGATTCGTAAGCCTTCGTAATCTGAACATAAGT TTCTTCCATCACACTTTTCTCATCAGGTGTTAGGCCCTTTGCTAATTTATCTGGATGAAA TTTAACAGATAATTTTCTATAAGCAGATTTGATGTCTCTATCGGAAGCACTAGTAGAGAT ACCAAGGATTTCATAAGGATCAAATAATTTTGTAGCAGCGTCTTTAATCGCGTCATTACT ATTAATCCTTTGCAGAAGAATTGCAACTAAGATCCAACCCACAATAATTATAATATTTCT CCTGCTCCATATTTTGGACTTCTTATTACTATTTTTATCAAACTTCCTTCTAAATTGTTT GATTTCATCACTGGTGTATTCTTCATTCAAGTTCTTGAAAACTTCCTCATTAAACTCCTT ACTCTTCCCTGAATTCCCATCTTCAGCATTGGCCCCAAAAAAAATTTGGTATATTTGAAG CAGTGTCATAGGCCCGACGACCATCAAGAGCCCCGTTAAAATGAAGGACGGCCACGTCTC ACTAGCCTCATCATACTCGTAATTTGTAGGCATTGTGCTGTAATATGCAGTATATTTATT TTGTTGCGAAGGCCTTCTTTGGTCAATTATAACTGACTATTGTTCCAGTCGCATCTTTTA TTCGTTCAGTGATCTTCGACGTGTTCAAGACAAATTTTTCAGAAAACGCCTTTCCGTAAC GAGTGACCAATTCGCGTTATAAGAGCGATTGTGTCAGTAATGAAGTCAGATTGTGACATT ATAAAGCTAAGACGTTAATAACTCAAAATAGAAAAGAAGCATG >YDL243C Chr 4 reverse complement (SEQ ID NO: 12) CATAAGAAACAAATTTTGTAAGTTTCTTGTGCCTTTTGAGTTTGAAATCATTGACCAGAA CAATGAGAACTCTAAACACGACAAATGGATCTTAAATCAATTTTCTTGAAAACATCTTCC AGTTTCGATATTCGCACATTTGCCGGTPAAATAGTGCAATCTGCCTATACCTTTAAAATG GGATCTTGAACGCGTACCTGAAGGTTTTTTTAAATAAGGCCGAACCTAAATGTTGCCTTC AAAATTAACCTGTATCAAATTTTGAAGCCGAAGTTGGTATCCTCACATTGTCTAACCTCA TGGTCTCCTAAAGTCCGGCGATCACTTTCCGTTGCGTGACTATTGATGATCAGACTGTCA ACAATGTCGTTCCGGGCCTCCATAGCTTGAAGAATTTTCGTTGACGGAACTAGAGGAATG GCAGATGGAGATGACCTTAGTTTCATGTCGCCTTGATAGTTATCAAAGAGTACAGAAACA AGACGTCTCTTGCTCAATAATAAGGATTGGATCAGGTGCTTACAAATTTTATTCGTCATA CAAACAATTACTAATATTTTTTTAATATTAAGCGTACCCCTATTTGATTGGCTCTCTTCT AAATTCATACGTTTTAAAATCCGCTTTCAACCGTCAACATAAAATTAGTAAGCAGACCTC GTTCCAAGACCCAACTAAGTTGCACTAAATATCCTCGAACAAATTGGGGGCAGATTTTTG AACCATATAAAAGTCATGACAATATTTCCAGATCAAGGACAGTTGCAGTTCTTCCTTTCA TCGGCCAGCTGACGAATTGACTGAGCGGCTTTGTATTTCACTAGAATACACTTCCTATAG CTACAAAATATTATTCAATAATATTAGTGAATTATTTAAACCTCTACCTGAACCACCTAC CGAGTTGGGACGTCTCAGGGTTCTTTCTAAAACTGCCGGCATAAGAGTTTCACCGCTAAT TCTGGGAGGAGCTTCAATCGGCGATGCATGGTCAGGCTTTATG >YDR256C Chr 4 reverse complement (SEQ ID NO: 13) AGAACATCCAAATTCGGAACTACTAAGAAGATATGGGTATGTTGAATGGGACGGTTCGAA GTATGATTTTGGAGAAGTGTTACTTGAAAATATTGTCGAGGCGTTAAAAGAGACTTTTGA GACGAATACTGAATTTTTGGACAGGTGTATTGATATCTTACGCAATAACGCCAATATTCA AGAATTCTTAGAAGGTGAAGAAATAGTACTAGATTCATATGATTGTTATAATAATGGTGA ATTGTTGCCTCAACTAATACTTTTGGTCCAAATCTTGACAATTCTTTGCCAAATTCCAGG TTTATGCAAACTGGACATAAAAGCAATGGAAAGGCAAGTGGAGAGAATTGTAAAGAAGTG TTTACAATTGATAGAAGGTGCCCGCGCCACTACAAACTGTAGTGCCACATGGAAACGTTG TATTATGAAGCGTCTAGCCGATTACCCCATAAAAAAGTGCGTTTCTATCGAAAAACCTTC GAAAGGAAACTCATTAACAAGGGAAGAACTAAGAGATGTTATGGCTCGGAGAGTTTTGAA AAGCGAAATAGATTCGCTGCAAGTTTGTGAAGAAACCATCGACAAGAATTACAAGGTTAT TCCTGATGAAAAGCTGCTAACTAATATTTTAAAGAGAAAGTTGACAGAGGAAGAAAAAAG CTCTGTCAAACGTCCTTGCGTGAAGAAGTGAGCGGTTGTTCTAACCACTATTTAAAGCCG CAATTAGTAATGCAAAAAGTTGGCCGGAATTAGCCGCGCAAGTTGGTGGGGTCCCTTAAT CCGAAAAAGGACGGCTTTAACAAATATAAACTCCGAAAATCCCCACAGTGACAGAATTGG AGAAACAACCAGTTTTGATATCGCCATACATATAAAGAGATGTAGAAAGCATTCTTCACT GTAATGTCCAAATCGTACATTTGAATTTCTTGTAGGTTTATTTAAAAGGTAAGTTAAATA AATATAATAGTACTTACAAATAAATTTGGAACCCTAGAAGATG >YFL020C Chr 6 reverse complement (SEQ ID NO: 14) GTTGAACTTTATTCAAATATCATCGAAGTAAGAAGATATACTACTAAAGACTCCCTTTGC TCTATATTCGAGTCAGGCTCCACCAGTCATTTCGAAATTAACCAGTTACAGGTCAAAAGA CTAAACTTACTGCAAAACCAATTTGCTTCTGTTTTCACTTCTTTCCACCCCAAAGATAAT ACAAAGGGCATACATATCAATTTTTTTTCACCTGTCACTAGGATAACTGACCTTCAATAT TCCTTTTTTTATACGAATCAGATACTGTTCGGTACACGATATCTAATTAAAATGATTCAA AACTTTGTAACAGGTAAAGTTTTCACTAGAACCAATCAATCCAAGTGAATTAGGGGAAAC CATAGTTGTTGATTTGTAGAAACCTCACATTGTACATTGTTGGTTTGTTGGGCATATCAG AACGAGAGATTTTCCAACATTCAATATACACTAAACCCTATGACGAGTCCCACAGATGGC GTAAGGTTTTTATGATTTCAGCAGGGTACGACGACTAGTACCATATTAACATTTTTTAGT GTTTCTAATTTGGGAAAAGGTCCGTGTTTTTTCTCCTAGCAACCGTTTAGTGCCAAGGGT TAGGCAATTGAACGAGGCCAAGACAATATTGGCTTTGCTTCTATTACTTGGCTAACATTG TGTCTGCAGGTCGAAAGGCACCTTTACTGTAAGGAACATTCTTGCGCTCTAAACATACGA AGATATGGGGAATATGAAGCGTGTTTCTTATACGAAGTGCAGCATCGTTCAAGGAAAATA CACCCCCATAGTAATAATGGCTAAGTGGCCAGGAATTAGAATATGTGAGATATGAGTGCA AAATGAGTGACCAGTAATAGCCTGTTTGGGATGTAATTGCTCAAAAAATTTATATAAATA CAGCGGTTTGATCAGCTTTGTTTGAGACATTTCTCTGTTCTTTTCCTTCCAGTTAAGCTT ATATCTCCACTAAGCAACAACCCAAAAAACAACAAATACAATG >YPL205C Chr 16 reverse complement (SEQ ID NO: 15) CAGACTTGTTGTCTGTGCTGTTACTTGCACTTGCTGCATTGCTATTTGCGTTCAAATCAC CTTTTTCGATGAGGAGGTCCCTTTGCTTCTCCACCATCGCCTTTGTGTAACGCAACATTG TCCAATCGAACAAGTGGTCGTTGTGATACTCTAGTTTAATACTCAGATCTTTAAACAGCC TTGCCAAGAACAAATAATCTGGCTTCTCATCGAATTTCAAATTCTTACAGTAAGCCATAT ATTCTTGAAACTCTAATGGTAAACCTGAACATAGAGTTTCCACGCTAACGTTTAATTTCT TTTCCATGATACGATCATACTTTTGTTTCTTGGTGGTTGCTTTCAAACCCTGCCATGGCA AAGAACCCTTACAAAAATAGATCAAGACATAACCTAGTGATTCTAAGTCATCTCTTCTAC TTTGCTCTATTCCAAGATGCGTATTGACACTTGCATAACGAGCTGTACCTGTCAAGGACT TGTTCTCCCTGTAAGGAATATGACGATGTGTGTTGAAATCTCGGTATTTCTTTGATAGAC CGAAATCAATAACATGAACGGTGCTACCACGGCGTCCTACCCCCATTAAAAAGTTGTCTG GTTTGATATCTCTATGAATGAACGACCTTCCATGTATATACTGAATACGGCAAAACATTT GCAAAGCCAGCATGATAACCGTCTTAAAGGAGAACCTTCTGTGACAGTAGTTGAATAAAT CTTCCAAAGATGGGCCTAGAAGATCGATGACCATAGCATTATATTCACCCTCTCTGCCAA ACCATCTGATGAACGGGATTCCCACACCACCGCTTAAGTATCTGTAGACGCGGGACTCAT AGTCCAATTGAGGATGTCTGGACCTGATCGATTCCAGCTTGATGGCTACTTCTTCACCAC TAATTAAGTTCGTGCCGTGGTAAATGTCACCAAAGGAACCACTCCCAATCTTCCTGCCAA TACGAAATTTCCTTCCTACTCTTAAGTCCATCTCTTTTTAATG >YGL205W Chr 7 (SEQ ID NO: 16) TCACTCAACCACCTCCAAAAAATAACAGGTTCATCTAAAGTAAAAGACTTTAACTTGCTC TTAGTTTCCAAATTAAATATCTGCACGATAGTACCATTTGCTCTAACGGAAATAACCATC TGAGATGGATGCATGATAGCAGAATCACCGCCCATATTCTTCCTTGTCACTTCATTGCCT TTGGCCAAATCCACGATTGCAACAGAGTTTGTACCGTCCTTTGTTTCTCTAACAGTGACG AAGTGGTCACTCTCGAAAGTAGTTGATCTGAAGTCAAGGAATTGAGGGGAAATTCCTAAG GACATCAGATCGACCAATTCGGTAAATTCAATGGGTAGGTCACTCATTGGTTAGAACTTT CGTGATAATTTATTTTTATAGTTGAATATCTTCTTTCTCTCTCAACTCTGATCCGGATTG TCGAGGTTTCAATAAGTTACTCTGAACAACTAATCAAAATATCTCCTTATTTCTGTAGAT TCCTTCAGTTCCACTTTTTACTTTTCTTAATTCTCTTTGTATTTATTCCTAGCGACGAAA AATGCGAGATCTCGACCAAAAAAAGGGGGTAGGGTAATAAAATTAACCCTATTATTTTTT AACTTTAAAACCTATAATGTGCTAATATTTTATTATAAACCTCCTTTTTTTGCGTTCAAA CCCTGACACATTTTAAGCCCTATATTTACGGTATTAGTTGATTAAACTCCGAAGCGAAAG GAATTCGGTCATTAGCGGCTAATAGCCGTTGGGGTAAATCACCTACAAGCAAGTACACAA GAGAACGTTGGCGTTGTTAAGTCAAAGCACTAATACATTGGGGCTTTAAGAGTGTTTATA AAGGTCTAACCTGTAAAAATTATTTAAACAACTTGAACAGGCCTTAAAGTTTTCCTCATT CCGCTCATCATCACTAATATTGCTCTCCGTTTTTGAATACACACTTGACACTAATAAGTA TCACAGAAAAAAAGAAAATATAATAAATTAGTATTGCGATATG >YGL117W Chr 7 (SEQ ID NO: 17) AAAACGGCTCCTAGTTATCGTCAGTTTTGATAATTAGTAACTAGAATATAGTATCACCAA GAACAGGCCAGGTAATATACTAGAAGTTGTGTATAACTACTAATATTTTTATACATATAG ATGCCAAGTCAAGGTCCAATTAGTAGATTTTTCACTCTACCTTGCATTATTACCTGAAAG ATCGTTTGTGTTTCCTTAAATTCGCCAGAGGTGCAAACGAATGTAAATATCTACATCAAT TTACGGTTTCACGCCCGTTTCGTTTCTAATGGCAACTCATGTAAACTGTGATAAACCCGT TATTTCAGTTTTATTTTCTGCTAGTATAAAGGATGATAGTAGCCATTTCGCTGGAATATG TATCGGGTTTAAAAGATGGCATAGTTCGAAACATTTTCGCACAAGATTCTAACTGTCTTC GAACGTCGTAGAAACCGCAACGCAAGAAATGACAGCGCAATAAAATTTATTTTACTAACT GATAGAACAAATGTAAAAAATTTCATAATATCAAGTAGAATTCTTTATTCTCTTTGTGAA TTCCTAAACCCATGAAAGGGACTTGTAGTATAAGCTGGATACCTATTTTCATTGGCTTCG TTTCCAAATGACACAAAACCATCACAkAAGGAAATAGTCCTTCCATAGTTACCCAATCAT TCTGTTGCATATTAAATGAACAGCTCCTTGTTGATAATGCCAGTGTGGCATATTCACCGC TGCAGTTATTTCTTTTCATATATAATGAGTCATTTGTTTCTGTCATCACTTTTCTATACT TTCTCTTCCCCGCGTGTTTTCCGTACACCAACAATATATGCCATAATACACGTAACATTT TTTTATAAAAAGAAAAGGTAAGTGATATATATAAAATAGCGCCATGAGTAGGAAACTTTT CTGTTACTGCAGATATGTGCCAGACTGGCTCAGGTGGCATAAACACAGATTAATAGTATT GGCGTTGCTGAAATAAGAAGATCTGTAACAATATCTTACAATG >YHR029C Chr 8 reverse complement (SEQ ID NO: 18) TCTAAAAATGTTCAGGACTACATACATCAATTAGGTTTCATTCCAAAAGTACCTTTTGTC AATTTATACCCAAATGCCAATTCACAAGCATTAGACTTATTGGAGCAAATGCTCGCGTTT GACCCTCAAAAGAGAATTACCGTGGATGAGGCCCTGGAGCATCCTTACTTGTCTATATGG CATGATCCAGCTGACGAACCTGTGTGTAGTGAAAAATTCGAATTTAGTTTTGAATCGGTT AATGATATGGAGGACTTAAAACAAATGGTTATACAAGAAGTGCAAGATTTCAGGCTGTTT GTGAGACAACCGCTATTAGAAGAGCAAAGGCAATTACAATTACAGCAGCAGCAACAGCAG CAGCAACAGCAACAGCAACAGCAACAGCAGCCTTCAGATGTGGATAATGGCAACGCCGCA GCGAGTGAAGAAAATTATCCAAAACAGATGGCCACGTCTAATTCTGTTGCGCCACAACAA GAATCATTTGGTATTCACTCCCAAAATTTGCCAAGGCATGATGCAGATTTCCCACCTCGA CCTCAAGAGAGTATGATGGAGATGAGACCTGCCACTGGAAATACCGCAGATATTCCGCCT CAGAATGATAACGGCACGCTTCTAGACCTTGAAAAAGAGCTGGAGTTTGGATTAGATAGA AAATATTTTTAGGACAAAAAACTATAAGTAACCGGGGAAGTATAGAATCACCATAGATGT AAGCTTACAGACAATGTGTATATATGATGTATATGAACGTATACAAATATATATATATAT ACGTGCTCTTGTTGTAGCTCGTATATCAAATTCCTCCTCCGACGCTTATCTTAATCGTAC TCCGCGGAAGTTTGTTATCGCCTCTTGAATTCTTTCTTTTCGTTCATTTATGATTAGTCA TCTATAGACAATATTCATTATTTAAGCACCTAGAATACTAAACTAAATGTCTAAATATGA CACAAGGAAGATAAGATAAAAAAAACCAAGCGCTTAGAATATG >YML116W Chr 13 (SEQ ID NO: 19) CATCGGGATCTTCCGACTCGTCATCAGACGTCGAGGTCATTATGCACTCCCCGAGCGATC CTGAATACGCTTTAAAATCACAAACTCTAAGAAGCTCGAGTCAGACCGTCATTAATAGTA AGAGACCAGTAAAGATAGAAGACGAGGAAGAAGCCGTAGGAATGTCACAGCTCAATTATA GGTCGTCATTAAGACAAGCTCCTCCAAGAGCTCCCTCAACTTTGTCATATAATCACTCGA AGAACAACGAAACGCCAATGCAAGATATTTTCACAAATGGCGAAACAGCAAATAACAGAA AGAAGAAGAGAGGATCTTTTGCAAGGCATAGAACGATACCAGGATCTGACGTCATGGCCC AATACCTTGCACAAGTGCAACATTCGACATTTATGTATGCAGCCAATATTTTGGGCGCCT CTGCGGAAGACAACACGCATCCTGACGAGTAGTATAGCTGTGCTGAGCCTGAAGTATAAT GCATATCCATCGGACTATTTAGACAAAGCCCAAGGAAGCCTAAGGCGGCCTGCCAAGGTG TTTCTCCCTTTTTTTCTCCGATTTCTTTGTATAAACTAAATAATATAGTGATTACTAATG GAATGGCGGTATTATGCACCTAACCTGTTCATTCTGCCACAGATTACGTAAGCGATTTAT TGCCGGCACTTGTTGTCTTAATGACCGAGTCACCAATGTGGAACGATAATTTTCTCTGAC TCAAACCTGTTAATTTTTTTCTACTTCGTTTCGTTAGCGACGACGTCAAGCCGCAGGATC CTGTCTGCCTTGACCTCTTCTCTACCTTCAGAACTTACACTTTTCAGGTAAGATGACCTT TATATAAAAGTTGACACTATTACAGTTGTTTATAAACGTCTGAAGAATGAGACGTTTTTA TAAAATGAATAAAATGCATATTCTAAGTTTAAAACAACATTTTCAAAGTGTACGATTGTA AAAAGAGAGGCAATTAGAGAATCTCAAACAGGTAATAATAATG >YJR109C Chr 10 reverse complement (SEQ ID NO: 20) GAAATCCAATGAGAATACCGCATAATCTTTCCCAATTACCTTGATATTTACAAAAGACCA TAGATCCTTACCCTGGTAAAGCTTGTAATTCTGTGAATCCGTTCCCTCCAATTGGATTTG ATTAGTGGAAGTCAACTTGGACAGTAATGTACTACCCGGGTTTTTATGCACTCCATAGAT CAAAGGATATGGAAACCAAAATTCCGTCGACAATTGTGGTGACTCAAAGATCAAATGGTG AGTAGTCAAATGTAAAGTACCTTGTGTGGCCGTACCTCTTCTATGCAGCACTACATTAGA TACTTTGGCAATCTTGATGTACTCCATCTTTGCGGAATGGTATACTATTTCTTTTCCCTC TTTTTAGCACTATTACACCCCGCCCACAAAATAAAAATAATAACGACGACCTAATCTCAC CAAGTGACCCTTGTAAAACCTCCTTTTCTTTATAATGTTTCTTTTCTTACTAATATTTGG TACATTTAGGGTAGTGATAAAAGAATGGCAACATTGTTATTATTGTGAAAAATGAGGAAA ATAGAAAATCAGAAACCCTAAAAAGTGATTTTACCCTATCAGAAATATTCAAATGTCCTA ATTAAAAATAGTAAATCCCCTAAACATTCAGATTGTAAACTAGGGTTGAGAAAATGACTC ATCCACCACTGTCTTCTTTCCTGCGGCATTCTATAGATTATTGTGAATGACTCTTATTGA TGAGATGGCAATAACTTTTGAATATCAGAGATAGGAACCTCCATGTCGTAACGATTGTGT CACCTTGAGTAAGCATCGAGAAAATCCAATCTTTTTTTTTCCGTCATAAGCATTTCTGCC ATGCTATTTGTATATATATAATTACTAATACGTCTTCTATAGTATGCCTTATCTCTTTTT TGAAGCGCTATTTAAGTTTAAGCATCGAAAAACTAACATCTATAGTTAAAATTAGTTCTA TAAAGGAAGAGCAATACAGTACATAGACAGGAAGAAAAGAATG >YCL030C Chr 3 reverse complement (SEQ ID NO: 21) GAATTACGAGAAGCCCAATTGACCATCGAAAAGCTACAAAGGAAACAACTACACTACAAA AGGCTACTCGATGACCAAAGAATGGTCCTCGAAGAAGTGCAACCGACTTTTGATAGGTAT GAAGCCACAATACAAGAAAGAGAGAAAGAGATAGACCATCTCAAGCAACAATTGGAGCTC GAACGCAGACAGCAAGCCAAACAAAAGCAGTTTTTTGACGCTGAGAATGAACAGCTACTT GCTGTCGTAAGCCAACTACACGAAGAGATCAAAGAAAACGAAGAGAGAAATCTTTCTCAT AATCAACCCACTGGTGCCAACGAAGATGTCGAACTCCTGAAAAAACAGCTGGAACAATTA CGCAACATAGAAGACCAATTTGAGTTACACAAGACAAAGTGGGCTAAAGAACGCGAACAA TTGAAAATGCATAACGATTCGCTCAGTAAAGAATACCAAAATTTGAGCAAGGAACTATTT TTGACAAAACCACAAGATTCCTCATCGGAAGAGGTGGCATCCTTAACGAAAAAACTTGAA GAGGCTAATGAAAAAATCAAACAGTTGGAACAGGCTCAAGCACAAACAGCCGTGGAATCG TTGCCAATTTTCGACCCCCCTGCACCAGTCGATACCACGGCAGGAAGACAACAGTGGTGT GAGCATTGCGATACGATGGGTCATAATACAGCAGAATGCCCCCATCACAATCCTGACAAC CAGCAGTTCTTCTAGGCAGTCGAACTGACTCTAATAGTGACTCCGGTAAATTAGTTAATT AATTGCTAAACCCATGCACAGTGACTCACGTTTTTTTATCAGTCATTCGATATAGAAGGT AAGAAAAGGATATGACTATGAACAGTAGTATACTGTGTATATAATAGATATGGAACGTTA TATTCACCTCCGATGTGTGTTGTACATACATAAAAATATCATAGCACAACTGCGCTGTGT AATAGTAATACAATAGTTTACAAAATTTTTTTTCTGAATAATG >YLR338W Chr 12 (SEQ ID NO: 22) TGATGCAGTTGGAGTCGGTAGCGATGTTATAGGAGGAGGAGGTGCACTAGGAGGCAAAGG AGGCGCCATAGCATCCGTATGGGGGGGTGGTGCGTTAAAAGCATTCGATGATGTTTGCTT ATGTAATTTGGATTCAATTTCATCCAGAAACGACATACCATTTTGGCTACTCTGTTTAGG CGGGTTTATAGATGGAGAAATAGGAGAAGGTCTTACGTTATCATCCTTAGATGAACCTAT TACATCCTCTTGTTTATCTTGGGTAGTGTATCCAGTATCACCACCAACCACGAATCTATC ATCTCTCTTCTTTTGGATCTCAGCAAGAAATGGTAAGGGTCCCCCAGGTGTTACGGCCGA GGAAGAACTGGATGAAGATATTTTGGATTGCTTACTGGACGCTGAGGGTTTGTTTGTCGT GAGTGTTGGAGGAGGAGGAGGAGCCGATGGTACTGACGTTGCAACCGAAGGAGGAGGAGG AGGTGGTAGTGGTGCTAAAGGAATAGATGATGCTGACAAGGCAGAGGATGTTGAAAAAGC ACCAGGTGGTGGGGGAGGAGGAGGTGGTGGCGCGGGCATTGACGATGCTTTGTTAGGAGG AACTGATGTAGTATTTGGTAACGGTGGTGCTAAAGTTGGGGGAACCGGGGTTGCTTTTAC GCTGTTAGTCGACGCAGAGCTCATGGCTGCTGGTAGTGGTGGTGGAGGCGGAGCTGGAGC TGAAGTTGCTTTTTTAGGTGCAGAGGTCACATTTGGTAACGATGGTGGAGGTGGTGCAGT AGGCGGTAATGGCGGAGCATGTGATGTAGGAATGGGCGGAGCAGATGATGGAAGTGGTGG TTGTGAAGGAGATTTATGATTTTCGGTTTGAATCTTTGTGGAAGAAACGCCCTCGACGGC TCCTCGTTCAGACCTCCTGGCATTAATTTCTGCCAAAAATGGCAACCCGCCTGCAGGAAC TTCAGAAGATGGTGGTGAGACTGCGTTATCTGTAGGTTTAATG >YIL066W-A Chr 9 (SEQ ID NO: 23) TGAATAAGCCTGTATAACTGCGCATGTAAGAATAGTGGCTGCAATAGATCCCACAGCAGT CAGTGCTCCAGCCTGCTCTTTCAAATCCGTCGTCGTAAGTCTATCAACAGGTAATCGGTC AAATGTGACATTATTTGAGATTCCCAACCAAAATGTGGGGTACCAAAGTATTACTTTTGC TATGGGCGATCCATTTTCTAGTGTTCTTTTCACCGCACTCTTCCAAACGACGTATAAAAC AAAGCATAAAGGTAAAAGTCTTTGAAATCCCACACTGAAAAGCTCATACACGCTAGCTGG GTCATGTGCATCCGTTAGTAATGGAGGGTCTAGAGATAATACAAGAGTCCAATAGCCCAC TATCGTGTTTATCCAGTACCCGTAAATACTGTCATACAAATAAAATATTGGCAGTCCAAA AAGCATATTCAATGCGACCACAGCTGCTCGAGGATCATAACAGCCCGACAGGATACCGCC TTGTATATCTCTGAATGAATATGAACCGGGAAAAAATGAATTGAATGCTACTGAAAACCC AGTGTTATACATTCCTTTTTTTGATGGAAAAGAATTTTGGGCCCCTTGCATAGAAACTTT GGTACAGCCACCGTAAAATGGTGAGATAACACCTGCATGTACTGCAGAGGCGCATGGAAA CGAGTCACTTCTATAAGGGTAGGACACGACCATCGGGTCTTCTTCGCTAAACAGGGCACC TCCGCCAATTTCATACCCTGTATATTTGACTCTCCTATTCCCTACGGCAATGGCGGAGTA TGTCCATCCACCTCTATCACACAGTGCTGGACATCTGATCATGTATTCTTTATTATCAAG TGGACCGCAGTTTTTAGCATTTAAACCACATTCGTTATTGGTACCCTCCCAGTTCAAGTA GGAATTGCAACTTAAAGACAATATAGGAATCTTTTCTGAGCCATCATTTGGATGGAAGTA TGGCGGCTTGATAAGATAGGGGTATATGAGAGAATAAAAAATG >YNL093W Chr 14 (SEQ ID NO: 24) CTGGCTATTTATATAAGATGTTGCTCTAATTCCATGAGTGATGTCCCATCGCATGATGAA GAAGTTATGAATGAAGTGAACAATATCATCGAATTACAACAACGGCCCATGCAAATGACC AAGTCTACCGTACGTACCAGGAGAAGACCACCACCACCTCCCATTCCTTCCACTCAAAAG CCATCGTTGACAGAAGAGCAAACCGAAAGTATAAGAATGTCACGCCGTAATAAAGATGAG AACAATGCTAAAAGAGTTGCCCCACCACCGTTGCCGAACAGACAGTTACCTAACTTAGAC GCTAATACTTACTATGTACCATCCTCACAAAATGACTATGGCATGTATGGTGCTTTCATG GATAAAAAAGCAGATGAATGGAAGAGAAGAGTAATGGACTCAATTCAAAAATTGAGCAAT CAAGACACCACATTGATGTTCTTTTCGGATCCGGCATTAAGTTTGGAAGACAGTATTCGC AGAATTAGGGAGAAGTATTCAAACTAAATACACTGTTATTTATATACATCGGGAGGGAGT TTAAAAATTGTATACACTAAAGTGACCTTATGAATTGGAGCCATTTTCAACGTTTTAGAG TGATGTTGCATCCTTTTCATCAGATCGGGAAATTAAAAAAACGGTTATAGAAGGGCTAAA TGTAAATATGTAAATTTTATGAAGTCAAGAGTAAAGAAAATCTTCGGTTGCCGATCAAAT ACACTCTTACAAAATACCCTAAACTCAGTTTATCTTTCCATTCCAACTGATTATCGCGTA CGCCTTGGTGACCAACCATACCCTAAAATGTCAATTTCCGGGGCGGAAGGGGTCCTTAAA CTGCAAAGCCTCTTCCCATGTAAATAAAATAAATCCGTAGAATTTATTAAATATTGTCAT ATTATAAGTCGGGAAAGGCCTTCTGAATGCACGTATATTGACCAAATAGAGTTAGATTCA AATTATTTATTACATTTTTTCAGCATCGAAGTTAAGTAGAATG >YLR381W Chr 12 (SEQ ID NO: 25) GGCGAAAGAGCTGTGTATGAGAATAACGAGACCGGTGTCATTPAGAACCTGGAATTGCAA AAGGCCACCATCCAGGGTTACGACAATGACATGAGGCCAGTCATCCTTGTGAGACCTAGA TTACATCATTCTTCCGACCAAACTGAACAGGAGCTGGAAAAATTCTCCCTGTTGGTCATC GAGCAATCAAAGCTTTTCTTCAAAGAAAACTACCCCGCATCCACCACCATCTTGTTCGAT CTGAACGGGTTCTCCATGTCCAATATGGACTATGCCCCCGTCAAGTTTCTAATCACTTGT TTTGAGGCTCACTACCCGGAATCTTTGGGCCATCTACTTATCCATAAGGCCCCTTGGATC TTTAACCCGATTTGGAACATCATCAAGAATTGGCTGGATCCGGTCGTCGCGTCCAAGATT GTTTTCACTAAGAATATCGACGAATTGCACAAGTTTATCCAACCCCAATACATCCCTAGG TATCTGGGCGGAGAAAATGACAATGATTTGGATCATTACACTCCACCAGATGGCTCTTTG GACGTCCATCTGAAAGACACCGAGACTCGCGCTATGATCGAAAAGGAGAGAGAAGAATTG GTCGAACAATTCTTGACTGTCACTGCCCAATGGATTGAACACCAGCCATTGAACGATCCA GCATACATTCAACTGCAGGAGAAAAGAGTACAACTTTCCACCGCTCTTTGTGAAAACTAC TCCAAGTTAGATCCGTACATCAGATCAAGATCCGTTTATGACTACAATGGTTCTCTAAAA GTTTGAGCCAAGCCACGCGACGCTCCATACTGTATAGACCTTTATTATAAAAACATCTAT TTCTTTATATGTCCCTCTATCTTATTTTTCTTTTACTTTTATTTGTATAATACGCGAAAA ATTATAGAATCATTTATTATCAAAAACAATCAACTATGAAATGAAAAACAATACGCCTGC TAATACGGTTCGCCCTTCAATTTTTGTTTTTTTTACATGAATG >YKL159C Chr 11 reverse complement (SEQ ID NO: 26) AGATAAGAATATGAGGGTAACAATGAATGAGAACTCACTTTGTAATCACCAGTTGAAGAA TGGTAAACAAGGCTAGTAATACATCCTGGTATTTCGGTCTCATGTTCAAAATAATCAGTG GTAATTTATATTATGTATATCTTTTCCTTGTTTCTTTGTTAAGCTTTTGTGTAAACATAC TTTAGTAATTGTGACGTTTTTTGGCACTTCGCACAGGCGTGACTAGTTTCTGTGAACAGA GGGCGTCTATTCATGATCTTCACAAATCTTGGGGGAGTTAATTTACTCTGCTTCCACATT ACATTGATGCGCAGTGATCTACTGACGCCTGCTGGTGGTGAGTACACATTAGATAAATAC CTAGGGTGTGCAGCAATAGACCTTAAACAAGGGTGAGCTTTGCCTATTAGAGAAGAACCT CTAACTGCGCTTTTCAATAATAGCCACCGAACAATTGGCATATTATGCAACCTGTGTTTT TAAGTACCTTTTTATGTCAGATTTTTTGAACTATCCTTCGATTGTTATTTCTTGATATAA CGTTTACATGATTTCTTAATTTACAACGCGGACGAATTAGATTGAAATTATTTAGCATAT CTGTCTAAGAGCACATTAGATCGAAGTACCGTAGCACATCTGCCATACTATCAAATGCAT CATCACGAAAAGGCGCAGTGTTGATGGATAGTAAATATGAAAAGGATCTCTTCTTAGGTG TTCCAAGCCTCGCTTCACGTGTAACATACACAGTTTAGAAGTTTACCAAACCGCGGCAAG GCGCTGTAAGGTTCAAGAGGCTTTGAATTATGCTATCTTACTATCTTGCCGCAAGTTGCT GTCAGGTGTAGTTCCTAGGCGGCTCGTTGACAAGACCCTTCTGCCCAATGACTTCTATAT AAAGTATGGTTTTCTTTTTAAATACAGTAATTCCATGAAAAAAAGAGGGCCAAAAAGATC AAGCAATAAACCAACCGATATATAAAACACAGAACTGCAGATG >YIL058W Chr 9 (SEQ ID NO: 27) ACAGAAGTAAGTACCGGGGTACCTAAATATACGCATAAAAGTCTCTTTCTTTTTTTTTTT TTTTTTTTTAGCTTCCTACATTTCGTTAATAATATTATATAGATTATATTTATATTTAAG AAAAGTAATATCAGCATATTATGAATAGACAAAAAAGTCTAAGGTCAAGATTTATTAAAT GTTAGATTATTAAGATTACAATTAACAACATTTGTTGTTACTTCATAAAATTTCGTTACT TCATAAAAGAACTACAGTCCCCCACTTCTAAATGAGTGGTTGTAGGGGTTCATATACCTC CCATACTGTTGGAATAAAAATCAACTATCATCTACTAACTAGTATTTACGTTACTAGTAT ATTATCATATACGGTGTTAGAAGATGACGCAAATGATGAGAAATAGTCATCTAAATTAGT GGAAGCTGAAACGCAAGGATTGATAATGTAATAGGATCAATGAATATTAACATATAAAAT GATGATAATAATATTTATAGAATTGTGTAGAATTGCAGATTCCCTTTTATGGATTCCTAA ATCCTCGAGGAGAACTTCTAGTACATTCTACATACCTAATATTATTGCCTTATTAAAAAT GGAATCCCAACAATTATCTCAAAATTCACCAACTCTTCACATACATACCTGCGGTAGCAA GATAGGTACACTTTTTCTACGTTTCACGAAGGTAGCGATAGGTACCTCACTCATTGTAGG TGCGGGGGTAGCGATGGAGGTTTCTGTACCATTACCACCACAGCCACTATACTCACGTAG TGAAGTCCCTAGCGTGGAATTGTGTGGTATCGTTGCTATCTGTCGTTCGCCACCCTCGGT ATATCCAACGTGCAGGCCAATATCACTCTCTAAGAAAATCGTATCAGGATTGGTACGGAC AAACTCTTCATAGCCTACGTCGAAATCAAATTCTGCTAAAGCTGTGACTGTAGTTAAACC TAAAACCGCGATTATTGCTTGAAAAACTGTGGAGAAATTCATG >YKR037C Chr 11 reverse complement (SEQ ID NO: 28) TGTCATCGCCGCCAGAACGTGCTCCTTACTGTGGGACGTGCCACTGGTGGGAGTAAACCA CTGCATTGGTCACATCGAAATGGGGAGAGAAATCACTAAAGCTCAAAATCCTGTGGTACT GTATGTAAGTGGTGGAAATACACAAGTTATTGCATACTCGGAAAAAAGGTACCGTATCTT TGGTGAAACGCTTGATATTGCTATCGGTAATTGTCTTGATAGATTTGCAAGAACTCTGAA GATACCTAATGAGCCCTCGCCTGGCTACAACATCGAGCAGTTAGCTAAAAAAGCCCCTCA CAAAGAAAACTTGGTAGAACTTCCCTATACAGTAAAGGGGATGGATCTTTCGATGAGTGG TATATTGGCTTCCATCGATTTACTTGCCAAGGATCTATTTAAGGGCAATAAGAAAAATAA GATCCTATTCGACAAGACAACGGGCGAGCAAAAAGTCACTGTAGAGGATCTTTGCTACTC TCTGCAAGAGAACCTATTCGCCATGCTAGTTGAAATAACAGAAAGAGCTATGGCTCACGT TAACTCCAATCAAGTTTTGATCGTAGGCGGTGTTGGTTGThACGTGCGATTACAAGAAAT GATGGCGCAAATGTGTAAAGACAGGGCCAATGGGCAAGTACATGCTACAGATAATAGGTT TTGTATCGATAACGGAGTTATGATTGCCCAAGCAGGACTACTAGAGTATAGAATGGGTGG GATCGTGAAGGACTTTTCTGAAACTGTTGTTACGCAGAAATTCAGAACCGATGAAGTATA CGCAGCCTGGCGTGATTAACGATTTTTGTTACAGTTAGCCTAATGTTCACACTACGAATA TATATATATATTTATATATGCCATACACCTTACATTTACAGCTCAGTGTATAACCTTGTG GAAGCGCGAAAATAAGCAAGAGACATTTGAAAATAATCAATAAACAAAGCTCAAAAAAAT TAGATCATCACCTAACAAAATAAGACGTGGCAATTACAGAATG >YNL279W Chr 14 (SEQ ID NO: 29) GGCAACATAGCAGTACGTCGCCAAAAAGAACGAAAACAAAATAGATATTATGCATAAACT AACGTGATTTTCATACAGATATTGCAATTCAGGCAATTGTCCATCAGTCAATTTCCATCT GATAGCCAAAACTAAGACCAAAGTTGTAGACATGGCAATTCCATTGATCTTATACGAAAG CTTCGAACCATCCCTTAACTGAACACCCTTCATGACTCTGCCCGGTAAAATGACGTCCAA AACTGCCAGTATTCCATACCACAGGCAATAGACAGTCCATAATTCACGATTGCCCAGATA GTAGCGCAATGGCTTGATACCGTTCCAAAGCTCAACTATATCGAAATTCTGGAAAAATCC CTTAATAAAATAATCGGGCCTTATCATTTGATTCAAGATGATAGTGAAAACAGGCAGCCC TATGCTGATGCCTAAGGCACCAATCAGCCCACCAAATTCAAACTCTGTAGTTCTGGGATT CAAAGCTGATACCATCCTTTTATTCTCTACACCGAATTTGTCTTTACTCCTATGCTGTTT ACAAGGTCTATCTGATAAGCAATTGCGCAAGAAAATACTAGAATGAAAACTGATTATTAA AAACAAACGTAAACTCAAGCCTCACTTGATGCTCAGACGGAGTACGTGAAAAACGTCCGT TATGCAAAACCCTTTATATGCACAACCTTCACACAATGCAAATTTCCGATGATGCCTACA TACAAAAGAGCGAAAGGCGATATAAATTTTTTTCACGGGATTTTCGTTTAGGTGAAAATA AAATGAACGACAGAGCATGCAGAGTCCGGGTAATACATATGTTTCAATACTGTTTCAATA CTGTTTCAGAAGTGCGTCACATATTATTTTAACTTAATAACTGGCCTGTTGCTGGCAAGA GGTATATATATATGACGAATGTGACCAACATAAGTCCTTAAGATAATCCCGAAATATTTG GTTAGGATGATTCCCTTTCGAATTTGTGAACGTTGATGATATG >YOR032C Chr 15 reverse complement (SEQ ID NO: 30) CTAGCGGTCTACATTCGCTATCAACTGAACGAATAGTGATGCAATCTGAACCTTAAACTT TTCGCTCGCTTTTACTTTCCAGAAAAAATTTTCTTCATTGGGATTCCTCTGCTGACAAAC GGGCTCACAGAACTGAGGAAACGAGAATTTTGTTAATCAIAGCAACATTACGGGAAGGAA CGGAACCGTCTCGTTGCTGTGGGCGCGAGTTCGACGCAAGAAAAAAATGCTGCAGCATCG TCTTTTGTGAACGCCAAGAAGGAGTCCGGCGAAGGTATTGGGCGTCACAACCTTTTATTC TCCGCAGTGTCTCTTGCCTACAAAGCCTGCAGAAGCTTTTATGCCGGGGTGTACGTATGT TAATCAGTTACCCTTTCCTACTGTGTGCCGCACCCCTCATTTGCTCTCGATACGAGAAGT TCCGCGCCGATTCTGGCCTTTTTGTTTTCTGGCTAGCCTACTTTCAGGGGACGTGCCTTC TTATGCCGCTGTAAATTACAGCAGAGATTTAGATCTGAGTGAAAACGTGGCGAGGAAAAA GGGTACACCGTTAAAAGCGTAGACACAATCCCACTTTGTTGTGCCTAGTCTTCTCTGCTG TATTTTAATTTTCTGTTTGAACTTTTTTCCGTTCTTTTCCATCATTGTTTAATTTTTACT TTGAGTGGGCTTCTCAAAAGAAAAAAATAGCTGGTATTGTATTTTTACCGTAGGCGTTTT CTTTGTATTTTTCCCAAGAGCAGCAGCACCTTTTATATACCTTGGTTACACATTGTAAGC CTCAAAAATCGTCCTATGTAAGTGTCTTATCGCATCATACTTAAGGTCAAACCTGTAAAG CGCGCTTCTAGTTTTATTTCTACTACTCGCCTTGGCTCTCGAGATCGCTTAGGTAGTTTA ATAGTTAGTCACACCCACCCACCCATTCGCTTAGAATATAGAATATAGAGCAGTTGCAGT ACACGACTCATTTTAGCAACGATAAGAGTATAAATTGGAAATG >YML058W Chr 13 (SEQ ID NO: 31) TCCTTATAACCTGTAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAGAAGGGTTTAAATAAAAATCGG ACTTACTCAAAGGGTTGAAAAGCACTTTAATATAGGTTTTTAGTTTCGGGTAAGAAGATG TGTCAAAGGTCTCGAAAAGGAAACATTAGGGCAAATACGTAAAGGTTGCCTTCGTATCTC GTTTCCACAGCAACGAGAAACGAGATACGAAGGCAACTGATTCCCAGCATATAAAAGGCC ATGAATTTTTGGCGTTTCCTATTGTCTTTTCGAAACTATTTCTTTCATTCCTTTCCTTTC TTGTTCTTTTACTTATAAGAAAAATAATATACGTATATATATAACTACAAACCACATCAG CAATAAAAAAAAACTATATGACCATGGACCAAGGCCTTAACCCAAAGCAATTCTTCCTTG ACGATGTCGTCCTACAAGACACTTTGTGCTCAATGAGCAACCGTGTCAACAAGAGTGTCA AGACCGGCTACTTATTCCCCAAGGATCACGTTCCTTCTGCCAACATCATTGCCGTCGAAC GTCGCGGCGGTCTTTCTGACATTGGTAAGAATACTTCCAACTAAGAGCATGCTTCTCTTT TTTTTTGTAGGCCAATGATAGGAAAGAACAATAGATTATAAATACGTCAGAATATAGTAG ATATGTTTTTATGTTTAGACCTCGTACATAGGAATAATTGACGTTTTTTTTTGGCCAACA TTTGAAATTTTTTTTTGTTACCTCGCGCTGAGCCCAAACGGGCTCCACTACCCGCCGCGG TCGCCATTTTGGGAAGTCATCCGTCCCAAAAAGGAAATAGCCATAACATATCGTTACTGT TTTGGAACATCGCCCGTTTCGCCCGATTCCGCCTCAGCGGGTATAAAAAGAGATCTTTTT TTTTCCTGGCTGTCCCTTCCCATTTTTAAATGTCTTATCTGCTCCTTTGTGATCTTACGG TCTCACTAACCTCTCTTCAACTGCTCAATAATTTCCCGCTATG >YMR303C Chr 13 reverse complement (SEQ ID NO: 32) AATGGCAAACTGAGCACAACAATACCAGTCCGGATCAACTGGCACCATCTCTCCCGTAGT CTCATCTAATTTTTCTTCCGGATGAGGTTCCAGATATACCGCAACACCTTTATTATGGTT TCCCTGAGGGAATAATAGAATGTCCCATTCGAAATCACCAATTCTAAACCTGGGCGAATT GTATTTCGGGTTTGTTAACTCGTTCCAGTCAGGAATGTTCCACGTGAAGCTATCTTCCAG CAAAGTCTCCACTTCTTCATCAAATTGTGGGAGAATACTCCCAATGCTCTTATCTATGGG ACTTCCGGGAAACACAGTACCGATACTTCCCAATTCGTCTTCAGAGCTCATTGTTTGTTT GAAGAGACTAATCAAAGAATCGTTTTCTCAAAAAAATTAATATCTTAACTGATAGTTTGA TCAAAGGGGCAAAACGTAGGGGCAAACAAACGGAAAAATCGTTTCTCAAATTTTCTGATG CCAAGAACTCTAACCAGTCTTATCTAAAAATTGCCTTATGATCCGTCTCTCCGGTTACAG CCTGTGTAACTGATTAATCCTGCCTTTCTAATCACCATTCTAATGTTTTAATTAAGGGAT TTTGTCTTCATTAACGGCTTTCGCTCATAAAAATGTTATGACGTTTTGCCCGCAGGCGGG AAACCATCCACTTCACGAGACTGATCTCCTCTGCCGGAACACCGGGCATCTCCAACTTAT AAGTTGGAGAAATAAGAGAATTTCAGATTGAGAGAATGAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAGG CAGAGGAGAGCATAGAAATGGGGTTCACTTTTTGGTAAAGCTATAGCATGCCTATCACAT ATAAATAGAGTGCCAGTAGCGACTTTTTTCACACTCGAAATACTCTTACTACTGCTCTCT TGTTGTTTTTATCACTTCTTGTTTCTTCTTGGTAAATAGAATATCAAGCTACAAAAAGCA TACAATCAACTATCAACTATTAACTATATCGTAATACACAATG >YJL153C Chr 10 reverse complement (SEQ ID NO: 33) TTCTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTCTTTTTGGGAACGGGGGAAAAGGTCTCACTAGTATATA AAGGAAAGAGAGTACAGCACGAATGAGCCAGCTGCAGGAAAGGGGCTAGGTTAAAAAATA AAAACCCAGCAGAAAGCAAACAACCAAATATAATTTAGAAATGGACAGAGACCATATTAA TGACCATGACCATCGAATGAGCTATTCCATCAACAAGGACGACTTGTTGTTAATGGTTTT GGCGGTTTTCATTCCCCCAGTGGCCGTCTGGAAGCGTAAGGGTATGTTCAACAGGGATAC ACTATTGAACTTACTTCTCTTCCTACTGTTATTCTTCCCAGCAATCATTCACGCTTGCTA CGTTGTATATGAAACGAGTAGTGAACGTTCGTACGATCTTTCACGCAGACATGCGACTGC GCCCGCCGTAGACCGTGACCTGGAAGCTCACCCTGCAGAGGAATCTCAAGCACAGCCTCC AGCATATGATGAAGACGATGAGGCCGGTGCCGATGTGCCCTTGATGGACAACAAACAACA GCTCTCTTCCGGCCGTACTTAGTGATCGGAACGAGCTCTTTATCACCGTAGTTCTAAATA ACACATAGAGTAAATTATTGCCTTTTTCTTCGTTCCTTTTGTTCTTCACGTCCTTTTTAT GAAATACGTGCCGGTGTTCCGGGGTTGGATGCGGAATCGAAAGTGTTGAATGTGAAATAT GCGGAGGCCAAGTATGCGCTTCGGCGGCTAAATGCGGCATGTGAAAAGTATTGTCTATTT TATCTTCATCCTTCTTTCCCAGAATATTGAACTTATTTAATTCACATGGAGCAGAGAAAG CGCACCTCTGCGTTGGCGGCAATGTTAATTTGAGACGTATATAAATTGGAGCTTTCGTCA CCTTTTTTTGGCTTGTTCTGTTGTCGGGTTCCTAATGTTAGTTTTATCCTTGATTTATTC TGTTTCATTCCCTTTTTTTTCCAGTGAAAAAGAAGTAACAATG >YLR092W Chr 12 (SEQ ID NO: 34) CGCTCCCACGACATGCGCATCTCTTCCAAAAACACTACCACTTTCTACTGACTCACTGGC CATTTGAGAACCACAGAGACTTGGTAGATTCCATCGCTGTAAACAATGGGAAACTAAATT CAACGTCTTCAAGGAGCGTCTGGCTGAAGGCGGATTGGATAACACTGTTTAACGTTAAAA ACCCTTGGGTCCAAACGCCGCCATCGTTAATGCGTCTGAGTGGGACAGATCTTGATACCT TCACACCAGAGAGGATATTCCTGATAAATTCTCTTGGAAACCACTACAAATTTTTAATAG CGAACAGTCATCTAAGCTACAATCACAAAAAATACCCCTCCCCTGGCGTGCAAATTCCTG TCAGGAACGCTCTTGGCGAAGTTTCTCCGGCCAAACAAATTGCCCAACTTTTCGCAAGAC AGCTGTCTCATATTTACAAGAGCCTCTTCATAGAAAACCCCCCGCTCTCTCCTGAGAACG AGCTGGCATTGACTGCCGTCTTCTATGACGAGACTGTAGAGCGACGCCTTAGAAGGCTCT ATATGCGAGCTTGTGCAAGGGCATATACGACTACTAATGCCGACTCCACCACGGAGCCTT TGATGTTTCATTGCACCCGGTGGGAAGTTGATTAGTTGTTGTTGGCTGTTATACTGGAGT AAATGTCACGTGCCACTGTGGCCGTGTCAGGTCACGTGAAGAGAGAAATTCGGCCACAGT TGTGGTCCTAAACAAGGACTGAAAAAGATCGCAGAAACTAGCAACGTCGGATAGCGGTAT GGTTGAACCAAAGTCCAGTTTTTAGTCATAGCCGGTTGAGGGATGATCTGCCGTTCAGTG TTCTGCGTTCAATAATACGCATATATATATATATCAAGGTATCAACACAATACTTGAACA GGTTAGGCTCGTACTAAAGCCTGGAAGTTTTTATCTTTCTGTAACATTTTTCTTTCTTGA GGTGTGTGTGTGTATAGATTAGCAGGGAATTATCTAAGATATG >YFL052W Chr 6 (SEQ ID NO: 35) CGACTAACCTTTTTCTTGGCAGTATGGAGACTGACTAGGTCTCCCAAACATTCATTGTAA CTGCTGTTTAAAGATTTTGTTCTAACCTAAATTCAAGTGAGAAGCTGAACATGTGTCTCT ACTTATGATATCACGACAGCAAATACTAATCTTGCCATAAATAGTCTAGCGTTTTGCAAC TTACCTCTAGATATATTTTATTTCTTGAGGAACCGTTTTCGTCGGTAATAACAAAATACT ACTGAAACGCCACAGCATTGAGAGAATACGTTATCGATTACGGCTTTCTTCTCGCTCCAG ATGTCGCGGGTAAGATATTCACCTCAAACTTTTCTTGTTGAGTGTCGTCACAAATCTAGA ACCTACATGCCATCTCAACGATTTTTCTGGAGAAAGGCCTCACTCCGTTCCGTACGTAAT GCATAGATAAAGTATCAGGATCTTCACGATGCTCGAGAGTTACTTAGTAGTCTGAGTTTA TGCGAAAAAAACTCCGCCGTTGTAATAATCGGGAATACACAGAAGTAGTACTGCACTATC ACTGGGATACTCAAAAACCTTCTTTTTAACTTTTCTATCCCACAAATAGAACATAGGAAA GAACATTGACTCCTCCACTTGAAGTTAAATTACAGGAACAAACGCCTAACTATAATTTCG ACATTGTTGCATCAACGAATCGACCGAAAGAAAAATCTGGAGTTGCAGTTATCACTTGTA TGTGCACTAAGATTTATATTTTTACTCCTGAGATCTGCCAAATCGGTAGCTTATTGAACT GCGTTCCTTTTTCCCCTGAGTTCTCGAGGTACCTGCGGCTTTGTCTGTGCCATCTCCCCC ACTTTAAAGTACCCCACGTTACTACCGCGTTTTTCCCCACCCCCGGCTTAATAAATTAGC TATATCTTGTTGACTTAAATACGGAGAAAAGAAGAAAACCTTCAAGAAATGCTTCATTGT CTTGTCAAAAGAGCTAAAGTAAAAGAGCTCTAGTTCGAAGATG >YIR017C Chr 9 reverse complement (SEQ ID NO: 36) CTGTCGAGTGCTGGTGGCGCTTGATAGCGGTATTGTACTTAATAGGTATCGCCTTCATTG GTTTGAAATTCTCGATCAAATTCTGCAGGATAGGGTCCTGAGCAGGCACAGAGGCTTGTT TCAGAGTAAGGGTCTCCAATTTCTGTTTAAGGGCATGATTTTCCGATTCTTTCGCTTGAA GTTCATTTTGGAGGCGGTTTAGTTTCGTTTCGTAGTTTTTAACGACCTTACTCAGTGACT CTATGGTTTCCTCCAGCACTTGCAACTTGTTGTTTTTGCGTTCTCTGTAGGCCCTTTGGG CGTCTCTATTCTGCCGTTTTTTCTTCTGTAGCTCCTCATCATTTTCTTCAGTTTCGTAAT CTTCGTGAAGTCGATGAACTCTTTTCCTCCGCTGAGCTGCTCTATGGGGCAACCTTGGAG GCAGTTTCCAATTTTTGGACACGTGGATCTTGGACAAAAGAGCGAGGTGGCTTTCCTCAG ACTCCTTAGGTTTTATCAGAGGTAGAGCCATGACTGTGATAATATGCTAGTTACACTGTT TATGTTGTGTGAACTTGTTGTAATATGGTTAACTTCACTTTCAGTGATTGATATGATAGC GACATCACTGCCGTGCAAAAAGACCATTCCATTACTGCACCTTTTTGTCCTTTTCCGTGG AATAAAAGTTCACTCGTCAGTTCCATGCATTCTGGAAAAAAATGATCTGAAAGATGCCAC AGTTGTGGGGCCCGCCCGGCCCAATAGGTAAACTAAAATACAATAGAAGGGGTACTGAGT GCACGTGACTTATTTTTTTTTTTTGGTTTTAGGTTTCGCTTTTTTCACCTTTTTCTACTT TCTAACACCACAGTTTTGGGCGGGAAGCGGAAACGCCATAGTTGTAGGTCACTGGCGTGA GTCAAGGCCGGGCAGCCAATGACTAAGAACACGAGGTAACTTGAATTTAACTATTTATAA CCAGTGGTAGTTACGAAGACAAATTGTTTTGTTCGTCAATATG >YLL062C Chr 12 reverse complement (SEQ ID NO: 37) CAATTTTGAAAATTGACATATAAAACTCTGATTCTGCAAAGCCTCTTGCCCCAAAAAGAT TCAATAGCATGCTTAAAACGAACGCGATTGCAACCCAGGCAGCAGGATTGACCGATGGTG CCCAATAAGAGATGGTAAGCGAACATCCTACCAGCTCGCTAGGGTAAGATATGAGCCACA TCAATAAGTAGTTAATTCCTATACTGAAGCCGACTGATGGGTCTATAAATCTACTGGCGT GCAGCGCATAGGAGCCGGAAACAGGGTACTGACATGAAAGTTCGGCCCCACACTGAACAA CACAGAGCATAGATGCGCCGACCAACAAGAAACCAATTAGCAAAGAAGCAGGTCCGGACG CTAGTGATTCCCCTAAACCAATGAAAAGACCCGTCCCTAGAGTACCTCCAATGGCTATCA TGGTCAGGTGTCTTTGATCTAGGACCTTTTTATACGGCTGGTTGGCTAAGTCCCATTGTA TTTTTTCTTCCTCTGAAAGCTCCGAATACAGCAAACCTTCTTGGATCGCTGGTGAATCAT TTCGCTTGAAAGAGTTCTTGAATCTGTGTATTAGATTATTTCCTTCATTCGAAGGCGTAC TTAACACGCTAGTGGAAAACTGAACCTTCGAAAGTTTGGTAGATTCAAATTCATCCATTT CGGGTATCTTTCATGGTATCCTGATGGAGAACTCTTGACGGTGATTACTTAACCACCCAA ATCTGTAAAATATATACGCATTTATTTCCTGGCATCTCTTCGCTATCCCCGCAAAAAGTT AATGAAAAAAAGCCATTCCTGCAGGAACTGTGGAAAAGTAAAAACTGTGGCATGAAAGTA CTACCAAATTGTGGCGAGGTATTCAATGGTAATAGCAAPACAGCAACAACGCCAATTTGA AAATGTACTACTAAGGAAGATAATTTAAACAGACAAGTTGTAGAAGAAATCTGAATCAGC AACTTTTAGTGTGCAACTTGAAAAAGTAATCAAAAAACAGATG >YMR323W Chr 13 (SEQ ID NO: 38) CAGTTTTCTTTTTGAATGAAGGAGAAAAGTGTTCTAGAAATATGTTTTAGTTCTAAGTAT CGTTGTCTGGAGCAAGCAAAGAAAAGCAGACCTGTATGTGCAACTTTCTTGTTTTCCATT AAAATCTCAAGAACCGGCCCCTTGACTGTGCTCATATATCAAGTATCGGTTTTAAAGTCC CCTAATTGTGATAATTGCAAGAATGACAGTCAAAAAGATATTTTTCTTTTCTTTCTTTTT ACCTATCCTTCATGAAAATACCTATGCTGATACTGAATATCTTCATTTGCAGCTATGCAA TATTTCAGATACTGCATTTTACCCAAGAGTTTCTTTACTGGTGGTTGGATTTTTTTTAAG ACGAGAAGATTACCAGTCCTGGATGTTCATGAATGTGCCTATTGCGTCATCAGCGACTCC GCGCCAAGAAAAGAAATACTCGCATGCTCGGATTTATAGAATCGCATAATGGAAATAGCT TCCTTAAAGGATGGAGATAAGGAAAAAATGACAAGAACAAGGAAGTACTTGGGAGCTTTC TCCGACATGTTAAATATTTGAAACTCACGCAGCTCTCCTGGAAAGTTGCATCTGGAAAGG TAAGGTTGTTTTTTGTTCAGACATCAAAATCGGCTCTTGTAGACAATGTCACAGATCCAC AAGTTGAAAAAAAAGTTTCGATGAACTGGATAAGGGGAGAGGTCACAAACAAAGTGTAGG GGGTGAGTAGTATAGTGGTAACTTGTTCATTTACCTAAATAACATTCTCACTAGAAAAGA GATATTGAAAGACTCCTCGTTTACCTAACTTGGCTGGTTCTTAGGTATATAATAGAAACA TGGATCTGGCAGGTTATTACTTACAGTTTGCATTCCCACCAGGTAACPATTTTCATTATA TATAGTTATTTTTTACCACCACTTCTTCTTCTTTCACTTTGTCTTGCAATAGAAATACCA AAACAAGGTGAGGAAAAAATCGAATCTCAACGATAAAAATATG >YPL171C Chr 16 reverse complement (SEQ ID NO: 39) CGGTTGGATCCTCACTTGTTTTAACACCTCCAAATAACAAGTTTTTAATGAAGGACATTT GTTCTCTATAATATTCCGATGTACGTGTGTGTGGCTGATGAGATTTAGACTGGTTAGACT ATTTGACGCGTCTATTATAGCTTACTGCAACAAGAAAATGATCGTTGATATATAAACTCT CAGATGTATATATCGTTCTGGAAACATCGAGCATAATACAATACAATTCAACAAAAATGC GAGAAGGCACTGATGTCTTGTCGTTAAAGAACCAAAAACGCGGACACTACGACCGTCTTA TTTCCGGTAGAAAAAGGGTACATACAGTTGAAGGAACGAAGAAAATTAAAATTAGAAAAA AAAGTAAAATAAAACAAGGAAGGTAGGGTAATATGGTCTCGTTTCCTTTGTCGCTCCGCA AATAAAGGAGCTTATTCCCGCACGCTCACATGGTAATTTGCGCCAAATCACGGATGTGGA AAACTGATCACGTGCTTCGATCGCCAACTACTGAGCGTCGTCCCACACTGATCTGGCACA GCTTACCTCGCCTTGAAAATTTTAATCTGTCCTGCTCGTTTGTTGTATATTGCTTCTTCT CAGAATATGCCCGCGATAACTGACAAAGAGGGTTCGACGTTTCAGAGATTCTACTCTTGA CCACTGTTTCGTGTAGCCGCTCAAGGTTTATTTCTTTCTTCTTTAATGTTCTTGGCACTT AGGCGGCTCCGTCCTCCGTCTGAAATTGCCGATCCTATTATTTGCGGAGGGCTCCTTAGA AGGGCTCCTTAGTAAGCAGTTTGCGTTCCTGATATAACTCCGTTCAGAACAAGGATAAAG TCGCAATAACCATTACTAAGCACAGTGTTGTAAGTAGGACAACTCGAACCTATATAAGGG TTGTGAACTGTGCTTGATTCTTGCCCATCATATGCAAAAAAGTACGTACTTGATATATAC AACAACTGTAGTTCAGTATAGCGAAGTTTAAATTTAGAAGATG >YER065C Chr 5 reverse complement (SEQ ID NO: 40) TGGAAATGTAAAGGATAATGAGTGAGCATATAAAATGGAAGAAAAAATAATAATAGGATT ATGTATAAAATATCGATTCCCTTTTGTAGATTTCGAGATCTTCGAGGAGAACTTCTAGCA CGTTGTTTACATATCTAATGTTGTAACACGGCCTTTGTTATCTTGTGAATATATCCATCA CCTACGTCGCTTGAGGTTTCGTATCAAAGAAAGAGAGTTCAAACATAATCATACGTGTTT CACTCCAAATTTGATCACAAATGGCCACCCATTATAGCTTGTTATTATTTACTTCTTCTT GAGTTCATTTTATTGAAAGATGCCCGCTGGGAACAAAACATAAATAAAATTCAAGAGTAC AATATAGCGTAGCATAGTTGCGAGCAAGGGAAGGCAACACAGTTAAAATGACAATGTTAG AAGGAAAAACTAAATCAAGCTCCCATAGGAAATTTCTTGTGTCAGTAATATGTCTCGAGA AAATAATAATAATTGAATCTATTTATTGAAAAGTAAATATCTCGTAACCCGGATGCTTTG GGCGGTCGGGTTTTGCTACTCGTCATCCGATGAGAAAAACTGTTCCCTTTTGCCCCAGGT TTCCATTCATCCGAGCGATCACTTATCTGACTTCGTCACTTTTTCATTTCATCCGAAACA ATCAAAACTGAAGCCAATCACCACAAAATTAACACTCAACGTCATCTTTCACTACCCTTT ACAGAAGAAAATATCCATAGTCCGGACTAGCATCCCAGTATGTGACTCAATATTGGTGCA AAAGAGAAAAGCATAAGTCAGTCCAAAGTCCGCCCTTAACCAGGCACATCGGAATTCACA AAACGTTTCTTTATTATATAAAGGAGCTGCTTCACTGGCAAAATTCTTATTATTTGTCTT GGCTTGCTAATTTCATCTTATCCTTTTTTTCTTTTCACACCCAAATACCTAACAATTGAG AGAAAACTCTTAGCATAACATAACAAAAAGTCAACGAAAAATG >YDR114C Chr 4 reverse complement (SEQ ID NO: 41) TTCCTAAGCCTTTGAGATATATCAAAATTGCTGCCTTTACCAACGACGAAAGTAAATTGG AAGAGCTTCGTGAGAAATACCCAAATCATTTGATTGGCGGAGCAGATCTTGTTGCCAAAA TTAAAAGCGGTGAAATTAGCGTTGATTTTGACAAAGCATTTGCAACTCCTGATATTGTTC CAGCTTTACAATCGCAGGTGGCCAGGATACTTGGTCCTCGTGGGGTTTTACCCTCTGTCA AAAAAGGTACGGTGAGTGATGATATAAGCTCCTTACTTCAAGAAAGTCTAGGATCTATGC CTTTCAGGCAAAGGGGAAACTCTATCAGCATTGGAGTCGGCAAATGCTACTTCACTGATC GAGAAATTTTACAAAACATTATATCCGCTAGAGCGGCATTTAAAACTGCTGTTGATAATC AAAAATCTAAGAAACCAAATATACTGAGTAAAACCACATTATCAAGCACACATGGCCCCG GTATTGTAATCGATTTTGCTTAATCAGCGAATCAGTTTTGTCTTGTTGGACTTTTTTAAT TGTATATATATATATACTGGTGCATTTTCTTTCTTTTTATATAAAATCATGTACATACAA AGTAACCGTCTTTTTAAAGTGGAATAAAGTAACTGCTCTTTTATTTTTGAATAATAGTGA AAGTGTATGTTGCATAATCATTAGATACCTATGTACAAGAAGTATTCAAATTTATCTGAA TAGTATGTGAAATTTCAATGAGACAAAAACCACCTACCTTTGAGCTTCCTCCTTTTCAAT ATCTTAGAGCCCTGTTTGCTCTTGGCCCTAGCCAAGAAACCAAAAGTTCTCTTCCGTTTC AATGTACTAGGTTGATAGGTGTTACCCCTTGATTTCCATCTTCTTTGACCTATTAAGCCA AATCCCAACGGTGTGAAGGACGGAGTCTTCAATGGTGAACTGTTTAAGAGCATACCGGTT TGTGGGCGTAACACAGATAGAGCAGAGAAAGAAGATATAGATG YBL065W Chr 2 (SEQ ID NO: 68) CGGTCCAGAAAAGCAACTGAGATTGGGAGTATAATTCGGTGGCGTTATTGGAATACATAA TAGGAAAATACGGCAGATACCTAGTCACGAAAATATGGTGTAATCTATTCGCTTTTTCAA TGGAAATACTAATATCGCCCAGTACAAACTCATCTACATTTGCATGCGGCGAAGGCAATA ATGGCATAGTCGTGGTGGTGGCTACTACCGGCGTCTTCGTCCTATCTGCATTGTTATTTG TTGCTACGTGGCTTGTTGCTGCAAATGGTGGTTGATTTGTTGTCGTTGTAACGGTGGTCG ACGTAGTATGAGGGGAATATGTTTTTTGAATTGGAGAGAAGGGGCCGTTCGGAGTGTTAC CTGCAGAGTTGTTCTTATAAAAAGCCATTTGCAAAGCAGGAGGTAAAGATTCTTTTGAAT TATTAGGCAATGCTGAGTCATTTAGCAGCGGGGGCAGCTTATTTGGCTCTGTTGCAACCA AGCCTTTCGAATCTTGCGCTAAAGAAGATGCGCGCAACGTCATGTGAGAAGATGCTTCAT TATTTGCTTTAAATTTATTCGTATTGCTGCCCTGATTTGCTTGTAAGAGTTGGGGTTCCC TGGACAAATAAGTTTGAACTGAAACCTTAGAATCTCGTTGAGCCGCGGAAGAAGTTGGAG AACCTGAGGAAGGAGAAGAATCTGGGTTAGGGATAATAGTACCCGGAGTTGGAGTTGGAT GCAGATTGAGCTTATTCAAAAGGCTATTGCCCATGGGAATCTGTTGTAAAAGATGAACGA AAACGCTGTCATTGGCCAGAAGAGTATCGAGTTTAGATTTGATTTCATCCACATCTTGTC TCAGTAGTTGCAACTGTGAGCCCTTCTTAGGCCTGAATTGAGGATTGATTTCACAGTGGA GACCAATTTTTTCGCATCTGGAGCAAGGATGAGGGAAATTTTGACTAGCATCGCATTTGA TTTTGTGCTGTCTACAATGTGTACATG

TABLE 3 Baseline promoters identified Affymetrix S. cerevisiae Syno- Probe ID Gene nym Proposed function 4464_AT YHR082C KSP1 Serine/threonine protein kinases 6604_AT YDL126C CDC48 Microsomal protein of CDC48VPAS1VSEC18 family 7242_AT YBR106W PHO88 membrane protein involved in inorganic phosphate transport 10388_AT YLL043W FPS1 Suppressor of tps1Vfdp1 7639_AT YPR108W RPN7 Regulatory particle of the proteasome 4130_AT YIL041W 11172_AT YJL166W QCR8 Ubiquinol cytochrome-c reductase 6311_AT YDR165W 9999_AT YLR330W 6540_AT YDL058W USO1 Integrin analogue gene 4531_AT YHR012W VPS29 10644_AT YKL053W 10766_AT YKL196C YKT6 v-SNARE 6583_AT YDL103C QRI1 9874_AT YLR427W 10368_S_AT YLL020C

Baseline promoters identified in the experiments set forth above are as follows:

>YHR082C Chr 8 reverse complement (SEQ ID NO: 52) TCTAAATATCGTCCCGTTACCCTCATCGCTACTGCCGGGCGTTCCCAACCCCTTCCGAGG CAGATTATATTTATTTATCTTTTTAACAATTTGTCCCTATATAGGCGGGCCGAACACAGC ACGTGAAAGAACTCTCAGGCTTCCACAACAGGCCATATCAAGTCCACACTTCCCTCATTA CTAGCATTTTTACACAAGCAGTCCACGCATTCCGCAACAGTGTTCACCTTTCTTTTCCCT AACTTATCTTATTATTTGTTTGTTGATCGCAAACAGACCCTTTTTTTTGGTGAGCGCATT TTACACAGTCTCAAGTGTCCTCTACTATAAAAATACAACCTCAAACAGTACTTACTGGCG TCCGCAGAATATTACTGCACTCTCAATCTGTAAAGAATATAACAAGTGACCCATTCCCTT GTTTTATTCAACTTCGAAATCTCTCTGGCTATCTTTGCATGCTTATCTAACTTTCACGTG ACCCGGATATTGTTCTCTGCTCAAAAAAGAACTGCAAAGAAGGAAATAGAAAAATAGCAT ACAGGCTCAAAGCTATAGTTTTCTGAAAAGGGACACCACGAATACAGTAGTATCAAAGAG AAAAAAGACTTCTTTATACTTACAGAAGGTTCATTTTCTGATTCTACTCTTCCAATCTAG TGTCGCAAAAAAACAAAACTTACTGGTATTAGCTGGCAAAAAAAAAAAGAATAGGTTATA ATTAAAGACATCTTTTCTCTATAAATTTTTTCTTAGAAGAAAAAGCCAAAAAAAAAAAAC CTGCTTCATACCCGCCATCAAATCTTATAGGCCTTATAGACTGCATATTACCGGATTCTT TCTCTCCGTTAACCCTACTATTCTTTCACTATACTTTAACCTAAAATAAAAAAGGAAAAA AAAAATTAAAAACTTCCAAAAACTTAGAAATTTCAAATACAAAACAAAAAGACACGTAAA GTTAGTGCAATATTTTTTTCTTACAATTTTTTGAAACTCGATG >YDL12GC Chr 4 reverse complement (SEQ ID NO: 53) AGAACATTATGAAGTAAAAGGACAATCAGCACGCCTTCCAGACTTTTAAGAAACATTGAT GGAGCCATTGATATCGGCACCGTACCTAACAACAACAAAAATGTCTGCTCCTGCTACGCT TGATGCTGCCTGTATTTTTTGCAAGATTATTAAAAGTATGTCACATTACTAATAAAGAGC TTACACTCACACCAATGATGGCGATAGTCTCTATGTAGTACATATACATAAAGCAGAATA CTAACAATCGATCCGCTATGCAACAGGCGAAATTCCATCCTTCAAATTGATTGAAACAAA GTACTCGTATGCTTTCTTGGACATCCAACCTACTGCTGAAGGTCATGCTTTAATCATTCC TAAGTACCATGGTGCGAAGTTGCATGACATCCCGGACGAATTCCTTACCGATGCTATGCC GATTGCCAAGAGACTGGCCAAGGCAATGAAGTTGGACACTTATAATGTGTTGCAGAATAA TGGTAAAATTGCGCATCAAGAAGTCGACCACGTCCACTTCCATTTGATTCCTAAGAGAGA TGAGAAAAGTGGTTTGATTGTAGGGTGGCCAGCCCAAGAAACGGACTTCGATAAGTTGGG CAAGCTACACAAGGAATTGCTTGCCAAACTAGAAGGCTCCGATTAGAGTAATGCATGCTA TGATTTCTTTTAGCGTTTTCTTTTCATATTTAAGTTTATACATATGGGTGTGTTTGCTTC CATTCATATCCACTCTATAATGCTAACAATCATGTTACTAGCCATCGTTGCTATCGATAC CTTATGAACAGCTCTAACTCCTTCCTTTTTAACCTACCGCCTTTTGCGCACTACCCGGCA ACCCCTCGAATGTGAATTCGGTGGCAAAAAAGGACATATATCAGGGCCGTGTATTTAAGA GATCCGCAGTTGATGTAGTCAATTAATCTAGTTCTATTAAGATTTGACTCAACGCCATTG ACTCGATAACTGGCTCAACTACAAGACAGATATACAAATCATG >YBR106W Chr 2 (SEQ ID NO: 54) CGAACTATAGGGAGATTGGTCCTCAACAATATATTTCTTCCTTGTCGACCCATTAGGTGT ATGGGCGAGTTGCTGCAGGGAAGACAACGAATCCCTAGAAGCGCACTTGTAAAGATCTTG CTCTTGTAAGTAGCGATGACGGTCATGAAGATGAAAGGGTGCGGTTGAAGTCAAGTTGAA CGTGATCGGATACTGATTTCTAGAAACAGGGGGGGCTGGTGTTGGTTCTGGCGAAGCCGC TTGCTCCGACTGCTTTGATGTCACAGCTTTGGGTTTCTCCGCTACACTGTCTACCTTAGG ATTATTGATCATGACTCAAGCTTGCGATATGTGTTGGTGTCATGCACAAGACGCCACAAA TGATAGAACAGAAAAGAAAGTGAACTAATCTTCCAAGACGAAGAAAACCAAAATCCGGGA TGAGTTGAAAGTCAAAAAGACTGTATATATAAATTTCAACTTTTGTAGAAGATGCAGAAA AAGAAAATGATATGGTATGCAGAAAAAGAAATAAACCGCTATTATCCTCGCGGTTTGTCA TTATAACAGGCAATTACACTAGAGAAAGCCGCACACCTCCCTCCGTTTCTTTTGCCCTGC GAGTTTTTCCGGAAAAGAAAAAAAAAACGAAAATTAAAACCCGCCTGCCCCGCGGGGTGG GGGAGGGGTCACCGGAACAAATCGGATAATCCCTCGCCTGCCTTAGATATCGTTCTGAAC GGCTGAAATTATGAAAGAAGAAGAACATCACTTTACACGGATCGCACGCCCATAATTCTT TTTTTTTTTTTTTTCATATCTTCGACGTTTGCCACTGCCTTCTCTTTTTCTTTCTTTTTT GGCGGCCGGTGGCCAAACGCGCCAAAACCGAAACGCTTATAAAATGTAGTTGCCTTGCTC TTTCATTCGATATACATATAAGAACGCTCACTGTTATCTTACATTAGAAGCTAGAAACTA TAACAGTATAACACAGCACAAGAGAACCGAGCAGCCCGCCATG >YLL043W Chr 12 (SEQ ID NO: 55) AGTAAAAAGAATAGTAATTATTACAATGGAGAAGATAAGATAAAGTTAGCGGCAACAAAT AAAGAACTCATCAGAGTTCTTGGCTTCTCTATGAGTGAAAGTGTTTCAAAGGTGTTTTTT TATGAGACAACAGTAATTCCCCTCCTTCAGAACAGAGTGTAGTGATTGGCAGTGAAGCTA TCCCTCTTTGCCACCCAATTTTGACGGCAGTTCTCATAGCATCTCAAAGCAATAGCAGTG CAAAAGTACATAACCGTAGGAAGGTACGCGGTAGGTATTTGAGTTCGTTGGTGGTTATCC TCCGCAAGGCGCTTCGGCGGTTATTTGTTGATAGTCGAAGAACACCAAAAAAAATGCTGT TATTGCTTTCTCCGTAAACAATAAAACCCGGTAGCGGGATAACGCGGCTGATGCTTTTAT TTAGGAAGGAATACTTACATTATCATGAGAACATTGTCAAGGGCATTCTGATACGGGCCT TCCATCGCAAGAAAAAGGCAGCAACGGACTGAGGGACGGAGAGAGTTACGGCATAAGAAG TAGTAGGAGAGCAGAGTGTCATAAAGTTATATTATTCTCGTCCTAAAGTCAATTAGTTCT GTTGCGCTTGACAATATATGTCGTGTAATACCGTCCCTTAGCAGAAGAAAGAAAGACGGA TCCATATATGTTAAAATGCTTCAGAGATGTTTCTTTAATGTGCCGTCCAACAAAGGTATC TTCTGTAGCTTCCTCTATTTTCGATCAGATCTCATAGTGAGAAGGCGCAATTCAGTAGTT AAAAGCGGGGAACAGTGTGAATCCGGAGACGGCAAGATTGCCCGGCCCTTTTTGCGGAAA AGATAAAACAAGATATATTGCACTTTTTCCACCAAGAAAAACAGGAAGTGGATTAAAAAA TCAACAAAGTATAACGCCTATTGTCCCAATAAGCGTCGGTTGTTCTTCTTTATTATTTTA CCAAGTACGCTCGAGGGTACATTCTAATGCATTAAAAGACATG >YPR108W Chr 16 (SEQ ID NO: 56) ATAATTGCGTTTAAACGCCTTTCCTTTTCTTCATCCATTTTCCTGGTATTTATCTCATCG TCTCTCTTAATTCTTAATTTACTACCTTCATCTGGGATTATGAACTGTGGATGTTCCATA TCACATTCATCCTTCCCTAAAGGACAAAATCCGGTCATGTATCTTTGACAGAAAACCTTC TTAATATGCCGTCTAGGACAAGAACTCCCCAGAGGACAGAATCCCATTTCGTAATTTTCA CATTTTGGTATCTTGCTAGCGGGATCTATGTGTAGATATTGACAATCTGGACTTTGTGTA CAGTACCCGTTTTTGCTGAAGAAGACACATTCAGGCATTTTTCGAAGATTGTATTCATGT AAGTATTCACATTGGTCATTCTTTTTGCACAACCCTCGAAGCCAATGTCTACAAACAATT TTATTCTGAAATATTGGTAACACATGCTTTTTTGGACATAACGGTCCCCTCGGACATGAT TTAGGGCCTTCTCTAGAATTGTAAAATTCACAAATAGGTCTGTCAGGATCGAGTGAAAAC GAATACTCTTGCCTGAGGAAAGGTTCAAATTTAAAAGGATATTTTGCTGTATCGGGGTGA ATTAGGCTCATTACATAAACTTATTGATTTTATTCGTCCTAGAATACTTGTTTAAGATAC AGTGCAGAAATCTTTAGCTTATAATTCAGAAATGTGATATTTTGAAGCGATTGGAACAAC AAAGTACAGTGCATTCTATATAATTATTAAAAGTTATAGTGGACTATTGTAATAACACTT GTTTTCCCCATATCATAACCGACGGCGCGTAAATGCATGCTCAATCAAGTTTCCGAATAA GTTAAGTTTGCCACCCATTGAGGATTAATATACACAAGGCAGCATTGAAAAACCTAATTG TTAACACTACACAAATCTCTATTGTTGTAGTAAACTGCGCTTTTTACCACTGTTACAATA GTTACTAATACACGCAAAAATTCTGGATAAACACGGCAAAATG >YIL041W Chr 9 (SEQ ID NO: 57) GCACGTGAATGTGATGTCTTGTGATGGCGGGTGAATTAGGACCGGGGTCCGCTGAGTGTT GAACTTCACAAAGCATATATCATTGACATAATCAGAAACGTGCTTGATCAATTGTGCTAT GGGGAGGTCCCGGTGCAAGATTCCAATCATCCTTTTGTTCGTGTCACCTTTGTTCTGTGC CATCAACGACAAATAGTGCGTCACAAGCAGCTTCATCGTGATTCTCTCCTTCAGGTGGAA GTTCAAGAACTGCGAAATTTGAAACTTTGGGTAACACGATTGGATTTCCTGAAGACCTTT TGCCAATACCACAATGGCGTCCTCGTGGTCGTCCAGCAGTTCTGTGAACTTGGCCTGTAT CTTGGGAGGATTGTGCAACTCGTACGGGTATGCGATTGATAGCAACGTTTGCAAGCTTTT CAAATACAAAGAGTTGGTTCTCTCAATATGAGGGTTGATTACCGCATTATACGGTAGCCT CTGAATGGCATTAAGCCGTTTACACGTCAATGAAAGCAACAGGTTGATTGTCTTGATCGT CAGCATGTACTCCTCCTTCTTGGTCAGCGGCGGCCTGTATTGCAGGAAATACTCGTAGTT TAGGGGCGCAATTGGTTTACTAGCGTAGTCCTGTATCAGCAGCTCAATGTTCGACCTAAT CTTGTAATGCTGGTCGAACGACAGTTGCGACAGCAGCTCGTGTGAGGGTCGCTGGCGATG TGCCCAGCGCATTCCCCCACATTTCCATGAACGCATAATCTTCCACATACTACCGTGAAG GCGTCTTGATACCACGTCTTCCAGTTATGGTCTTGACTCACCAATGTTCTCAGTTTAATG TTGTTTGCTTCATACTGGCAGACATTTTCCCTTATTACCGTGAGAAGCGAGCGGTGGATT AATCGGGATGTCAAAAACAAGAAAATTGCAACCTTCTTCACCTATAACCTATATGATTTG TAGGCAGAGGAGTGGAATAAGCAACAAATCATAGTCATCAATG >YJL166W Chr 10 (SEQ ID NO: 58) AAATCTCACTTCAGAAACGAAAAATACTACATAGATATCACCGAATTGTTCCATGAGGTC ACCTTCCAAACCGAATTGGGCCAATTGATGGACTTAATCACTGCACCTGAAGACAAAGTC GACTTGAGTAAGTTCTCCCTAAAGAAGCACTCCTTCATAGTTACTTTCAAGACTGCTTAC TATTCTTTCTACTTGCCTGTCGCATTGGCCATGTACGTTGCCGGTATCACGGATGAAAAG GATTTGAAACAAGCCAGAGATGTCTTGATTCCATTGGGTGAATACTTCCAAATTCAAGAT GACTACTTAGACTGCTTCGGTACCCCAGAACAGATCGGTAAGATCGGTACAGATATCCAA GATAACAAATGTTCTTGGGTAATCAACAAGGCATTGGAACTTGCTTCCGCAGAACAAAGA AAGACTTTAGACGAAAATTACGGTAAGAAGGACTCAGTCGCAGAAGCCAAATGCAAAAAG ATTTTCAATGACTTGAAAATTGAACAGCTATACCACGAATATGAAGAGTCTATTGCCAAG GATTTGAAGGCCAAAATTTCTCAGGTCGATGAGTCTCGTGGCTTCAAAGCTGATGTCTTA ACTGCGTTCTTGAACAAAGTTTACAAGAGAAGCAAATAGAACTAACGCTAATCGATAAAA CATTAGATTTCAAACTAGATAAGGACCATGTATAAGAACTATATACTTCCAATATAATAT AGTATAAGCTTTAAGATAGTATCTCTCGATCTACCGTTCCACGTGACTAGTCCAAGGATT TTTTTTAAGCCAATGAAAATGAAGAAATGCGTGATCGGAAATTACGGGTAGTACGAGAAG GAAACTTGAGCCACCCCCCAAATTTTATTCATATAATAATAGGAAAAGCAACGACCTCAT CTCTCGAACATTGTTTACTTGAGCAAGTCCGATTAAGAGTAAGTTGTCGTACGTTAAATA CAAATAATCAACAAAACACTACACAAAAACTTCTACGATAATG >YDR165W Chr 4 (SEQ ID NO: 59) AAAAAACTGAAATATAGGGTTTGTTAATCCTGGTAAAAATCTGATGTGACATCTTCTGTA CTTAGGTGGTCTTACCATGAAGTCAGCATCGATACAATTGATGTTATATTTCGTTGGTTC CAATATGTAAATTGCCTCGATGGAGGATTGTCCTTTTCTTGTTGGGGAATCAATCAAATC AACAGATGTGACATTATTTAAAAGTTCTTGGGGTGTGAGGAAAAGATAACTCAATATTGT CTCCACAGTTTTATCGATAATAAGAAACTTCAAGTTATTTTTCGTCTCPATCTGATTCAA AACCCCTATCAAATAGTTCCTCTGTAATTCAATTAAATCAGACATCGTTCCGCCAAACCA AGCATGTGCACACTCTTCTACTTTGTCAGTGGATTCTAATTATTTTCAAGGTCTTACAAA GCAATGTCTTACTAGTTTCAATAGGGACTTAAACTGATCGTTTAAGCAAAAGAAAAACAC CGTGCTGTGTGACCATCTACCAATAATTGCGAGAACATAAGACGACGCCGCCATTCACCT CTCTATCACTTACACCATGTTATAGGGATAAGTGTGTAGTCGATCGGCTATTCGATGATT TTTAAAGAGTGCCTGTAATAATAGCTGTATCGCAAGTAAGGAATACAAGATTACTGATAT TTTGATCCAGGAGGATGGACATGTTAGATAGAAAAACTAAGAGGGCTACTACATCCGGTT TAGTATTCTGTTATTGGGAATGCTTTTCCCAAGACGCAAGCAAGAGGTGACACATAAACA TAGTTTTCTTATTGTATCGTTACATATTCTTATTTTACGCTGCTGTCATTAAATATGGCA CTTATCTCAGATACATTTCTTTTAATCAGCGAAAAAAATGGCGAGGTGAAAAAAATCGAT GAGATGAAAAAATTTTTTACTAGTAAAGGCGTATTGATGATATATTAGCAGCTAAAGTAT AGCAAGGTTTGTCAATTTGAAGCAGTCCGCGTGTTTTACAATG >YLR330W Chr 12 (SEQ ID NO: 60) CTAACTATAATAACTGGTAGCTTTGTCACTCGTACCAGGAAAAGTGAAGATTAAACTGAA TTTTAAAATGAACGATCGATTAGTTACGGAAGAGCAAGAGTTGTTTACAAAATTGCGCGA GATTGTAGGTTCAAGTATTCGCTTTTGGGAGGAACAACTGTTTTATCAAGTTCAAGATGT AAGCACCATAGAAAACCACGTCATTCTCAGTTTAAAATGTACAATTTTAACGGATGCTCA GATAAGTACGTTCATAAGCAAACCCAGAGAGCTTCATACGCATGCCAAAGGATATCCTGA AATCTATTACCTTTCCGAGTTATCAACAACTGTCAATTTTTTTTCTAAAGAGGGAAACTA TGTCGAAATAAGCCAGGTTATTCCTCATTTTAATGAATATTTTTCCTCTTTAATAGTGTC TCAATTGGAATTTGAATACCCGATGGTCTTCTCCATGATTTCAAGGCTCCGATTGAAGTG GCAACAAAGTTCGCTCGCTCCGATATCCTACGCCCTAACGAGCAATTCAGTACTTCTTCC AATAATGCTTAACATGATTGCCCAAGACAAATCTTCAACAACCGCGTATCAAATTCTGTG TCGAAGAAGAGGTCCTCCAATTCAGAATTTTCAAATTTTTTCCTTACCGGCTGTAACGTA CAATAAGTAGCATGCATAAAATATAATTTAATCAAATACTTTTGGGCAATTAAAATTTTA GTTAACAATAGTTATGCAATGCGCTTTATGTTCATATGATACCGTTTATAAGCTATTGCC ATATCCTTATCTTATTGCTTCCAGTAGCCTCGAGTCGACCACTAAAAAGATGTCACTTAA GACGGAAATTATGTAGCTGCACTTCTTTTTTAACAAGTTCGGTCGGCCCTTCAAGTTCTC CTTTCTAAAGCCTCATTATTTATTGCGTAGATGCTAAATGTTATCGCGGTTTAGCTTGCA TGTTACGTTTCCGTTTTAGAACCTGGTCGAGTAGCGAATAATG >YDL058W Chr 4 (SEQ ID NO: 61) TTCGCCAACCATCATACCCGAATGTTTCATTAGCGAACTGAATGAGAGCATGCCCTGGTA TCAGCTTAGATAAGTTGTGCTTCCCATATTTATTATTGTGGTAAATATTGTACGTGTACC TTTCGATCTTGGACTGTAGAAGCCCAATCCTCTGCACCGACCAAGCGCTGGCAGGTCTTC CATTCCAATCTTCGATGATTTGGAACTCTTTTATATCCAAGCCCGGTGCTGTGCCGTATG TAGTCGAATCATACGATATGCTCGAACTGGGCTTCGCTTGTATCGTCATTATTTTGTCTG TTTATCCTGAAATATGCTCTTCTCCTCTACGTAACCCTTTAATGGTCCAAAGCATGTGCT AAACTGCCACAGACTCCCTCAATGATGTTCTTATCCTTCCTTGCCGTTACTGCTTCCTAT CATATCTGCCCTTGCCAAACTGTGGCTTCCTCTAATCAATTTGCCCCAGTACATTGAAAA GCACGTGACGTGACACCAACTTGAAAGACATTAGTGTCCAACGCGATATAATGGTCAATA AAATACCCAATTTTATCAAGTGAACATGATATTATTCAATACTATAGTACTTTAAAGAAA ACTTCAACAAGTTGCTTCATTGCTATATTATACAATTATGGGTGATGCCGGTCGGCTAAC CTTTCTTTCGCAGCGCCACATACAAGAACATATGGTAATTACTAAGAACTTTTTGGAAAC TATTTCCATGAAGAAAACAAAATTTACTGGCTTCTGTCTTCGAAGTAAATTTAGCGAACT TGATACTTTCGTTTGGACAGTCGTTTAGATTTGCAACTGTCTGTTCTTATTTCTTGCTAT TATTACCAGAAATAAAGCCTAAAGCGCGTGGTTCTTACGAAAAAAATAGACCTTGCACAT TAACAGGGTTTAGACATCACAGAGACTGAATACTGGAGAGAAGACAATTCTTGTTCACGA CTTCGAGTGATTAATATCTATAACAACCCTCCTATCAAGAATG >YHR012W Chr 8 (SEQ ID NO: 62) TGAAAGGCAAATTTACGCTCTTCAAGACACCAATTTAGGATTGGTGGCTACCGCGGAGAT ACCTTTGGCAGGTCTAGGGGCAAACAAAGTTCTAGAGTTAAACTCGGGAGAATGTTCTAA GAAACTAGTTGGAGTAAGTAGATGTTACAGAGCTGAGGCAGGTGCCAGGGGAAAAGATAC GAAAGGTCTCTATCGCGTTCATGAGTTTACTAAAGTAGAATTATTTTGCTGGAGCAAGCC AGAAACCAGTGCAAAGGTCCTTGAGGAAATAAAGCAATTTCAGATTTCTGTAGTTGAGGA ATTAGGAATACCGGCCAAAGTACTAAATATGCCATCAAACGATCTTGGTAATCCCGCTTT CAAGAAATACGACATCGAAGCTTGGATGCCAGGAAGGGGGAAATTTGGCGAGATAAGTAG TGCCTCCAATTGTACCGATTTCCAAAGTAGAAGATTAAATACAAAGTACAGGGACGATAA CACAGGAAAGCTAGAATATGTGCACACGCTGAATGGCACAGCAATGGCTATCCCAAGAGT GATAGTAGCACTAGTAGAAAATTTCTATGACCCAAGCACCGGTAAGATATCTGTTCCTGA ATGTTTGAGGGAGTTTATGAATGGCCAACGATACATTTAATAAGTAAGAAAATCTTGTAA ATATGTAATCTTATGTTAACCGTAGCATCATTGTGTTGGACGAAATCCTCTGTGATGTTC TGTGTGATTGAAATTGTATGGTATTTTCGATCATACGAGTATTTTTCCTAAAGATGAAAG AGAACTCGATTCCTAAACAGTTGTTTGTAGGGCATAACGTTGTATCGTAAATACTTACCA TACGCTTAGGTATATTCCTTTAGATTTCCGTAACACCTTTCAGTTTTACTATTCCGCGTG GCGAGGTAAAGATCATAAAAATACAAGTTTGTTATAGCATTTCCTGCAAATAATTGCTGT AACTAGTGGCGAAAAGGTCATAGAATTATTCGCCTAAATTATG >YKL053W Chr 11 (SEQ ID NO: 63) CCGGAAGTAATTTTATCAATTATAGTTTCCAAATCATCATATTCTTGAACTATATCAATT AAATCATCACTCGTCCAGTCAGGGAACAATTCTGTAAGCGTATCTATTTTGGACTTTAGC GCAGGATTTAGTTTTTTACTACTATGACTATTATGATTAGACTTCCTAAATTGTGTAGAC ATTATATATATATGATGATGTAGATTATATTGAGAAAACGACCAAACAAAAATAAATATG TAAGTACTTTATGATGGTGATTTTTTTGGGGTAATTGGTAAGAGTTTTTCTTGTAGCTTC AAAAGATCAAATATAAAATACGAATGTTTCTGAAATTACTGTAAAAGACTTAGGAAAAGG AATGAAACGTTTATATGGGAGAGAACGAAAATTTTTCCTTTTCCCGCCACTACTTTTTGC CACCATTTCCCGTTATTTATTTGGGCGAGTGCTCACCTCCGACGGAATCACGGGTGACGG ATATCCTAAAAAGGTAAAGAATTGAAACAGATCTATTAATATACGGATCACTATACATTA TTATAAGTCGATATTGCAGTATTAGTATTTACATGTTGAATAATGCACATTCTGTGCTAA AATATATACTTCATTTGTCAACTTCTTTTAGTTTGCCGCCATTTTCAAACGGCGCCTCCT CCCTAGCTTCGTCTAGAGCAGGCTTAATACCTTGTTTGACGAGAGCTGCGTTGACACATG TAGTATAAGCGTACCATTGTTTTGAGCACTCGTTCTCAACGGATTTTCCCTTCAGGAATT TTTCGCTATACCATTCATTAAAACAACTATCGTATTTCGTCTTCAGGTCAGTGCATTCAG GCGCAAAACTAGCTGACATTATATTCCCCATATAAAACTGGTATTATTGTTATTGTAATT CAAGTTAAAACACAAACAGATGTTTTCTAATGACCTCTCCCGGCATATATCTGGCGCACT TAGAATAAATTTCTACATGCAAATACTCTGAATATTCTGAATG >YKL196C Chr 11 reverse complement (SEQ ID NO: 64) TTCTTCTTCTCCATTATTATCTTCAGTAGTTGTCTTGTCATCAGATTGTCCCTGTTGCGA TTTTTCATCATCTGAATGTTCTGGATCTTTTTTTTCAGAAGATCCAGCATTGTTGTCTAG TGTTTTGTCACTAGTATTTTCTTCCGAGTTCTCAGAACTTATGTTTTCATCCTTTTGATT GTTAGCGGTGGCATTGTCTTCATTGGATTGCTCATCATCTTTGGTTGATACCTTTGATTC ATCAGTATCTTTATCTTCGGAAGACTTGTTGTCTTCTTCTGCTAGAACAACCAATTCACC ATCTTCAGCTACTTTTGAAGCACCAATTTTATCACCCCCTAATTGAGGGCCAGCTTCAGT TTCATCGTTTTTGCTGTCGTTGTCATCTCCATTTTCATCGCTTTTGCTGTTGTTGTCATC TTCATTTTCTGGTGATTGCTCACCACCACTGGAAAGCTCTTCCTCTGCGGTTTTATCGGA TTCTACCTTCCTTGAGGCGAAAAGAGGCTTCCTATTAGGAGCAATAAAATATAAAGCACC AGCCATAGAAAGAATCCCCATTATAAAGCCCGCTGTTTTTTcCTGATTGGAGTTCCTACC GAACTGAGGGGAGGACGCCATGAGACGTCTTGTTTGGTGTCGGCATAACCCCCTTGCCAC TTGAATTGACGGCCTGTTTCTGCACGCATTCCTGACGACTAAGTTGCGAAGCATTTTACT GATAATATACACTCTTTGGATCGAGCCTACTTCCAGTTGGTAATTGGTGTTCCACAATTT CAGCATTATATGTTTTTAAACCAAAATTCGGCTCCTTTTCCCTTTTTTTCTTATTGGGTG GCGTGCCGTACAGAACGATTGGCTTGGTGTGAAATCAAGAGCAAGCACAATAGATATCAA CATGAACAATATACAAAAGTCTCTGGCACAGTTTGACTGCGTTAGACCAGGCTAGGGCAT TTCTGAAGCTTTACGTATCACTAGAGAAGTTATTTTGGCAATG >YDL103C Chr 4 reverse complement (SEQ ID NO: 65) GAAAGATGACCTCTTTCAAACGCAGTACGCAGTTTGTTGACCATATGCGGATAGGTGACG TATATTTTCCAGAATGGTAATTTGGTATCTCCGGAATAACCCCAGATAGACTGTTTAGAT ACAACTTCAATCGAATCAATAGCGTGGTCAAATGTTTCGTTTAAATAGTGCACAAACTTG TTGATTTGCTCCTGATCGTTAGCGTCGGAAGAATTGGGCGCTGGGACGTAAAGATAGTTC TTGAACCCTGTAACATTACAAAGTACAGAGTGTCCTTCACTAGTGACACCAAAAAACCTT ACCACGGTAGATGTATTTTCATCTTTGATACCATTCAGTACGCTCTGTTCCGCATCAATT TGTTGGAAAGAAATATCATACAAACTTGGGTCAAAATCGGTTGGAAGTTTCTTACGCTCG AATGATGACAGGTCATGCTCTTCTTGGTCGGCCATATCATGTTCCATTTGCGATACGTCT TGTTCAAAAGTAGACTCTAATTGCGTACCCATTAAATCTGTATCCTTTGCTTTGAAGCCT TGACTATTATATTTTCGAAAAGAATCACTCGGAATAATCTCTATTGTTGAAACAGGTTCA CTTCCAACACCATGATCTATTGATTGCCGTTTGATTTTCTTTTCCAACTGGGGAGTATCC TCGTCATCGATCTTCACATCAACCATGGGAAGGGATCTTTTTTCACTCATTGCTGTGCGT ATATGTATAAAGATTAATGCTTAATAGCAAGTGCTCAATATCTATTTTCCTTTATCCTTG AAAATTGCCTTAGATCAGTAGTACTGAGTGTTTGTTCTTCATAAGCGAATAGCAGATGTC CTCATTGAACATTTTATAGAATAAAAAGTTACGCGTAATACGAAAAATTGCCTATTACGT TAAGGCATACTTTTACCACACAAAACCAAGATCAACCGTCAAGCAAGAACGCTGCAAAGA AACGCAGATATAAAGGAGAACACCAGATCGAACTGCAACTATG >YLR427W Chr 12 (SEQ ID NO: 66) TCTTGAATGTCGACATATGCCCATCATCAGTGAGGAATACTCGCGTGAAGGATCTCATCT GCGACCTGAGTGATGATGAAGAAGTTGCAGCACTACTGAATTTGTTGAAAAGAAAGTATA AAAATGAAATCCGATTGATTGTGAACAATGCTGGAGTAAGGGCCAACTTCACCGGATTCA ACGGCATGGAACGGGATAATCTTGATAAGATTTTTAAGATAAACACATTTGCACCACTTC AGTTCATTCAAGAACTGGCCCCTAGTAGACACTCAACTAGACAGTGTTATATTGTCAATA TCGCAAGCATTTTGGGCATATTGACGCCGGCCAAAGTAGCAGCTTATGCGGCGAGCAAAG CAGCATTGATAGCCTTTCATCAGTCGTACAGTTTTGAATTGCAAAACGAAGGCGTAAGAA ATATCAGAACACTATTAGTGACCCCAGGGCAACTGAATACGGAAATGTTTGCAGGATTCA AGCCTCCTCGCCAGTTCTTTGCCCCTGTAATAGACATTACTACTCTAGCTGCCAAGATAG TCCGTTATTGTGAGCTGGGTCAGAGGGGACAGCTAAATGAACCCTTTTATTGTAGTTTTG CTCATCTTTTGATGTGCGTACCTTATTCGCTACAACGCATTGTAAGAAGCTTCTCTCGCA TAGATTGCTGCCTCCCGGACGAGTAGAAAGCTATACATAGTAAATAGAATATTTATAGAT GAATCCGAGTAGACAGCCTTGGTGTTTGCTTATACATTCTTTGCAATTATGCACGCCCTC ATTACCGTTGCTCATATTTTTGGGCATTAATTGTATTTTGAAAAGTGCTCGTTCAGGCCC GTGTAAAAAAAGGTGATGAAGCAAACATTATAATAAACACTTCTGAGAAGCCACGTGTAG AGGGGTAAGCTATATCGTAAACACCGTTGGATGTGGACCACGGTGCACTGATAAAATAAA GATATAGTAGTAGAATCTGTTACTAATCTTAACACTTTTGATG >YLL020C Chr 12 reverse complement (SEQ ID NO: 67) GCTGTAGATAGATATAGAGAAGCCGCCAAAACAGAACTAAGAATTCTACAGACTATCCTG AATAATGACCCTCAAGGTCAGTTCCAGTGCCTCTTGCTAAGGGAGTGCTTCGATTACAAA AATCACATTTGTTTGGTGACAGATCTATACGGCAGGTCCATTTACGATTTTATGTGCTCC AACGGCATTGCCAGGTTCCCCGGCTCTCATATTCAGGCCATTGCCAGACAGCTAATCAGA TCTGTCTGCTTCTTGCACGATTTGGGCATAATACACACGGATTTGAAACCAGAAAATATC CTGATTTGTGACGAAACCCATATTGCTCAAAAATTGCCTTTGAAAACCGTACAGTCGCTA AGCAAGAGACGCCGTGAAGCCAGTAAGGGGAAGCGCAAAATCTTGAAAAATCCAGAAATC AAAATCATTGATTTCGGTAGCGCAATTTTCCATTACGAATATCATCCTCCTGTAATATCC ACTCGTCACTATAGAGCCCCGGAAATTGTCCTTGGCTTGGGCTGGTCGTTCCCCTGCGAC ATTTGGTCCATCGCGTGTGTCCTAGTAGAACTGGTTATTGGCGAATCTCTTTACCCCATT CATGAAAATCTAGAACATATGGCTATGATGCAACGAATCAATGGAACCCCTTTCCCCACA GACATTATTGATAAGATGTTTTACAAATCTAAACATAAATTGGGCAACTCTCCATCAGAC CTAAATTCAACGGTGATAAAGCATTTCGACAGAAAAACTTTAAGCTTACAATGGCCTGAA AAAAATAAACGCGGAGATACCATAACCACCGAAAAGTCAATGAAAAGGGTCTTGCAGTCA TGTGATCGCTTAGATATTTACATCTCAAAGGTCTTGAAACAGGATTACGGCGATAGCTTA AGCATCAATTGGAATCTACCGCCGGAGAAAAACTGGTCTTTGATAAATTCGAAATTGGCA TGGAAAAGACAAACACATTCCTCTTCTTCCTCAACTACTGATG

Example 2

Ratiometric Screening Assay (Luciferase and β-galactosidase)

In this example, the ability of a substance to modulate the chromatin modeling function of the YCR052W gene is determined using a ratiometric assay.

S. cerevisiae strain W3031a cells are transformed with a plasmid comprising a hybrid which includes the responsive promoter YOR387C (SEQ ID NO: 1) operably linked to the E. coli lacZ gene along with a plasmid comprising a hybrid which includes the baseline promoter of YHR082C (SEQ ID NOs: 52) operably linked to the Photinus pyralis luciferase gene lacking the peroxisomal targeting sequence (see Leskinen et al., Yeast 20:1109-1113 (2003)). The cells are grown, in microtiter dish wells containing 100 μl culture, while shaking at 30° C., to exponential phase and the culture is split in two. One culture is contacted with a substance to be tested for the ability to modulate chromatin modeling and the other culture is not. The cells in each culture are further incubated for another 2 hours.

100 μl of 1 mM D-luciferin in 0.1M M Na-citrate (pH 5.0) are pipetted into each well. The plate is shaken briefly and then the luminescence is measured wuing a Victor mulitlabel counter in luminescence mode (Perkin-Elmer Wallac; Turku, Finland) using a one second counting time. After the measurement of the luminescence, CPRG (chlorophenol red β-D-galactopyranoside) β-galactosidase test buffer (for example, 50 or 150 mg/ml of CPRG in HBSS (Hank's balanced salt solution)) is added. Then, the expression of the lacZ reporter gene is measured by measuring the chlorophenol red reaction product, optical absorption at 540 to 580 nm, after another 2 minutes to 24 hours of incubation.

The levels of expression, in each culture tested, of the lacZ gene is normalized to the level of expression of the luciferase gene. The normalized level of lacZ expression in the presence of the substance being tested is then compared to the normalized level of expression of the lacZ gene in the absence of the substance. If the ratio is above or below 1, this indicates that the test substance is modulating the chromatin modeling activity of the cell.

Example 3

IC90/MIC Calculation

In this example, a baseline promoter of the invention (SEQ ID NO: 53) was used to determine the IC90 of various known anti-fungal compounds. The IC90 value determined was then compared to a visually determined MIC value.

Setting up the Plates:

    • 1. Picked a single colony of yeast Y229-1 (PCDC48 (SEQ ID NO: 53)-PH05-Renlla Luciferase) and inoculated 10 mL YPD (1% yeast extract, 2% peptone, 2% dextrose) containing 100 μg/mL G418 (Geneticin, GIBCO, Invitrogen Corp.).
    • 2. Incubated the cells overnight at 30° C. with shaking (250 rpm).
    • 3. Measured optical density of the culture at 600 nm (OD600) and diluted an aliquot to OD600=0.1 in YPD. Made an additional 1:100 dilution of the 0.1 OD600 culture in YPD.
    • 4. Transferred 12.5 μL of serially diluted compound or no drug control in 2% DMSO to one well of a black/clear bottom sterile 384 well plate. Covered with a sterile lid.
    • 5. Added a 12.5 μL aliquot of diluted Y229-1 cells to each well of the 384 well plate. Final DMSO concentration was 1%.
    • 6. Covered the 384 well plate with a sterile lid, placed in a plastic bag to limit evaporation, and incubated for 24 hours at 30° C.
      Preparing the Luciferase Assay:

A Promega Renilla Luciferase Kit was used in these steps (E2820, Promega Corp., Madison, Wis.).

    • 1. Add 12.5 μL 1× Lysis buffer per well.
    • 2. Add 25 μL Assay Reagent per well of 384 well plate. Read light output immediately on an appropriate device (e.g., LeadSeeker, Amersham Biosciences, Piscataway, N.J.).

TABLE 4 Correlation of IC90 calculated from luciferase light output and MIC determined visually 5FC AMB CSP FLU TRB VOR IC90 (μg/mL) 1.9 0.3 0.02 0.3 1.4 0.008 MIC (μg/mL) 2.5 0.3 0.015 0.2 1.56 0.015

IC90, inhibitor concentration at which there is a 90% drop in signal relative to the uninhibited control; MIC, minimum inhibitor concentration at which there is an approximately 90% drop in cell number relative to the uninhibited control; 5FC, 5-fluorocytosine; AMB, amphotericin B; CSP, caspofungin; FLU, fluconazole; TRB, terbinafine; VOR, voriconazole.

Example 4

High Throughput Screen

In this example, a baseline promoter of the invention (SEQ ID NO: 53) is used in a high throughput screen to discover compounds with antifuingal activity.

Compound Preparation

    • 1. Prepare compounds in 5% DMSO.
    • 2. A control inhibitor, amphotericin B is prepared at 25 μg/mL (in 5% DMSO) to produce 5 μg/mL (final concentration).
      Culture Inoculum Preparation
    • 1. Inoculate 10 mL YPDU (1% yeast extract, 2% peptone, 2% dextrose, 80 μg/mL uridine) supplemented with 0.1 mg/mL G418 (from 50 mg/mL stock) with yeast strain Y229-1 (PCDC48 (SEQ ID NO: 53)-PHO5-Renilla Luciferase).
    • 2. Grow Y229-1 overnight at 30° C. with shaking (250 rpm).
    • 3. Measure the optical density of the yeast culture at 600 nm (OD600) and determine volume of yeast culture needed for OD600=0.1 in 5 ml YPDU.
    • 4. Further dilute this 5 mL culture 1:20 in YPDU (this volume is sufficient for approximately 5000 assay points).
      High Throughput Assay Set Up
    • 1. Add 5 μL compound or 5% DMSO to a sterile 384 well plate (e.g., Matrix Technologies, Hudson, N.H. catalog #4331).
    • 2. Add 20 μL of dilute inoculum to each well containing compound, amphotericin B or DMSO.
    • 3. Cover plate (e.g., Matrix Technologies catalog #4320) and incubate 24 hr at 30° C.
    • 4. Prepare 1× Lysis Reagent from Promega Renilla luciferase kit (catalog #E2820) by diluting 5× stock in deionized H2O.
    • 5. Add 12.5 μl 1× Lysis Reagent to each well. Incubate at room temperature for 1 hour.
    • 6. Prepare Assay Reagent as described by manufacturer.
    • 7. Dispense 25 μL Assay Reagent into each well.
    • 8. Read immediately on an appropriate luminescence detection device.

Example 5

Ratiometric Dual Luciferase Assay

In this example, a Renilla luciferase and a firefly luciferase reporter is linked to a gene responsive and a baseline promoter, respectively, and used in a ratiometric assay to determine whether a substance inhibits fungal cell growth.

Strain construction. A double recombinant strain comprising a chromsomally integrated YOR387C promoter/Pho5-Renilla luciferase hybrid and a chromsomally integrated YHR082C promoter/Pho5-Firefly luciferase (-SLK) hybrid is constructed. The yeast strain, Y229-1, is transformed with plasmid pSPRT190 (SEQ ID NO: 87), comprising gene responsive S. cerevisiae YOR387C promoter (SEQ ID NO: 1) operably linked to Pho5-Renilla luciferase. The YOR387C promoter/Pho5-Renilla luciferase hybrid integates into the Y229-1 cell's chromosomal TRP3 locus. The pSPRT190 plasmid comrpises the KanMX gene for selection. The recombinant strain is, in turn, transformed with plasmid pSPRT50 (SEQ ID NO: 86) comprising baseline S. cerevisiae YHR082C promoter (SEQ ID NO:52) operably linked to Pho5-Firefly luciferase (-SLK). The YHR082C promoter/Pho5-Firefly luciferase (-SLK) hybrid is allowed to integrate into the Y229-1 cell's chromosomal HO locus. The pSPRT190 plasmid comrpises the KanMX gene for selection

Assay. Test and control double recombinant yeast cells are mixed in growth medium and diluted to OD600 of 0.2. Two experiments are set up: (i) double recombinant strain contacted with the substance being tested for the ability to inhibit fungal cell growth and (ii) double recombinant strain contacted only with a blank. Then, 25 μl of the diluted yeast strains are added to microtiter wells containing a compound to be tested for the ability to inhibit fungal cell growth or a blank (10 μl compound [dissolved in 100% DMSO] per well). Yeast and compound are incubated for 3 h at RT, followed by the addition of 25 μl of firefly luciferase reagent (Promega,Madison,Wis.) to each well, and incubated for 1 hour. Luminescence (firefly luciferase reporter) is determined using a Viewlux plate reader (Perkin Elmer,Wellesley,Mass.).

After reading the firefly luciferase counts, using a Victor2 plate reader (Perkin Elmer,Wellesley, Mass.) equipped with an injection system and interfaced in a Thermo-CRS stacker-based robotic system (Thermo-CRS Ltd.,Burlington,Ontario,Canada), 25 μl Renilla luciferase reagent (Stop &Glow,Promega,Madison,Wis.) are added to each well individually, and luminescence is determined immediately (within seconds,due to the short half-life of the Renilla luminescence).

The relative levels of expression from the YOR387C and YHR082C promoters, in the presence and absence of the substance being tested for the ability to inhibit fungal cell growth, are compared.

In this assay, the compound being tested for the ability to inhibit fungal cell growth is selected if the responsive promoter (YOR387C) expression level (Renilla luciferase) decreases or increases in relation to the expression level from the baseline promoter (YHR082C) (fire fly luciferase) when the relative expression levels in the presence of the substance being tested are compared to the relative expression levels in the absence of the substance being tested.

Alternatively, the plasmid pSPRT47 or pSPRT192 can be used to construct the assay strain. Plasmid pSPRT47 comprises a Pho5-Renilla luciferase construct to which a promoter can be operably linked, an HO targeting sequence, and the KanMAX gene for selection. Plasmid pSPRT192 comprise a Pho5-Renilla luciferase construct to which a promoter can be operably linked, a TRP3 targeting sequence, and a hisG:URA3:hisG consruct for selection and counterselection (e.g., using 5-FOA).

The present invention is not to be limited in scope by the specific embodiments described herein. Indeed, various modifications of the invention in addition to those described herein will become apparent to those skilled in the art from the foregoing description. Such modifications are intended to fall within the scope of the appended claims.

Patents, patent applications, publications, product descriptions, Genbank Accession Numbers and protocols are cited throughout this application, the disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entireties for all purposes.

Claims

1. An isolated hybrid polynucleotide comprising a S.cerevisiae YIL066W-A Promoter operably linked to a reporter; with the proviso that the reporter operably linked to the S.cerevisiae YIL066W-A Promoter, is not the YIL066W-A open reading frame.
2. An isolated polynucleotide of claim 1 wherein said promoter comprises the nucleotide sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO: 23; and/or the reporter comprises a nucleotide sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 42-51.
3. An isolated vector comprising the hybrid polynucleotide of claim 1.
4. An isolated host cell comprising the vector of claim 3.
5. The hybrid polynucleotide of claim 1 wherein said reporter is a member selected from the group consisting of S.cerevisiae ADE2, S.cerevisiae LYS2, S.cerevisiae TRP1, S.cerevisiae LEU2, S.cerevisiae URA3, S.cerevisiae HIS3, Aequorea victoria GFP mutant 3, Renilla luciferase, Photinus pyralis luciferase, and E.coli 1acZ.
6. The hybrid polynucleotide of claim 5 wherein said reporter comprises the nucleotide sequence set forth in a member selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 42-51.
7. The hybrid polynucleotide of claim 1 wherein the reporter is a Pho5 conjugated Renilla luciferase.
8. The host cell of claim 4 wherein said hybrid polynucleotide is chromosomally integrated.
9. The host cell of claim 4 further comprising a baseline promoter operably linked to a reporter.