Indexed on: 15 Sep '06Published on: 15 Sep '06Published in: The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
We have studied store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) in Bergmann glia and granule cell layer astrocytes in acute brain slices of the rat cerebellum, using the Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent dye Fluo-4 and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Astrocytes were identified by their morphology, location, and their Ca2+ response in K+-free solution. Depletion of Ca2+ stores by cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) (20 microM) induced SOCE in both types of astrocyte. A similar Ca2+ influx was elicited by the calmodulin antagonist calmidazolium (CMZ) (1 microM). The SOCE channel blocker 2-aminoethoxy-diphenylborate (2-APB) (100 microM) and the Ca2+ release-activated channel blocker 3,5-bistrifluoromethyl pyrazole derivative (BTP2) (20 microM) suppressed the CPA- and the CMZ-induced Ca2+ influx. Pretreatment of acute slices with the specific Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) inhibitor bromoenol lactone (BEL) (25 microM) blocked the CPA- and the CMZ-induced Ca2+ influx. The lysophospholipid products of iPLA2, lysophosphatidylcholine (250 nM) and lysophosphatidylinositol (250 nM), but not lysophosphatidic acid (250 nM), induced a BTP2- and 2-APB-sensitive, but BEL-insensitive, Ca2+ influx. CPA or CMZ enhanced the BEL-sensitive enzymatic activity of iPLA2 in cerebellar astrocyte culture. Inhibition of iPLA2 expression by specific antisense oligodeoxynucleotide of iPLA2 reduced the SOCE and the Ca2+ store refilling in cultured astrocytes. Spontaneous Ca2+ oscillations in astrocytes in situ were reduced after inhibiting SOCE channels or iPLA2 activity. The results suggest that the depletion of Ca2+ stores activates iPLA2 to open Ca2+ channels in the plasma membrane by the formation of lysophospholipids in astrocytes, presumably to refill the stores and allow normal Ca2+ signaling.