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Regulation of hepatic fatty acid elongase and desaturase expression in diabetes and obesity.

Research paper by Yun Y Wang, Daniela D Botolin, Jinghua J Xu, Barbara B Christian, Ernestine E Mitchell, Bolleddula B Jayaprakasam, Muraleedharan G MG Nair, Muraleedharan M Nair, Jeffrey M JM Peters, Jeffery M JM Peters, Julia V JV Busik, Julia J Busik, L Karl LK Olson, Donald B DB Jump

Indexed on: 23 Jun '06Published on: 23 Jun '06Published in: Journal of lipid research



Abstract

Fatty acid elongases and desaturases play an important role in hepatic and whole body lipid composition. We examined the role that key transcription factors played in the control of hepatic elongase and desaturase expression. Studies with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha)-deficient mice establish that PPARalpha was required for WY14643-mediated induction of fatty acid elongase-5 (Elovl-5), Elovl-6, and all three desaturases [Delta(5) desaturase (Delta(5)D), Delta(6)D, and Delta(9)D]. Increased nuclear sterol-regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) correlated with enhanced expression of Elovl-6, Delta(5)D, Delta(6)D, and Delta(9)D. Only Delta(9)D was also regulated independently by liver X receptor (LXR) agonist. Glucose induction of l-type pyruvate kinase, Delta(9)D, and Elovl-6 expression required the carbohydrate-regulatory element binding protein/MAX-like factor X (ChREBP/MLX) heterodimer. Suppression of Elovl-6 and Delta(9)D expression in livers of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and high fat-fed glucose-intolerant mice correlated with low levels of nuclear SREBP-1. In leptin-deficient obese mice (Lep(ob/ob)), increased SREBP-1 and MLX nuclear content correlated with the induction of Elovl-5, Elovl-6, and Delta(9)D expression and the massive accumulation of monounsaturated fatty acids (18:1,n-7 and 18:1,n-9) in neutral lipids. Diabetes- and obesity-induced changes in hepatic lipid composition correlated with changes in elongase and desaturase expression. In conclusion, these studies establish a role for PPARalpha, LXR, SREBP-1, ChREBP, and MLX in the control of hepatic fatty acid elongase and desaturase expression and lipid composition.