Refractive index of biological tissues: Review, measurement techniques, and applications.

Research paper by Rana R Khan, Banat B Gul, Shamim S Khan, Hasan H Nisar, Iftikhar I Ahmad

Indexed on: 29 Jan '21Published on: 29 Jan '21Published in: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy


Refractive index (RI) is a characteristic optical variable that controls the propagation of light in the medium (e.g., biological tissues). Basic research with the aim to investigate the RI of biological tissues is of paramount importance for biomedical optics and associated applications. Herein, we reviewed and summarized the RI data of biological tissues and the associated insights. Different techniques for the measurement of RI of biological tissues are also discussed. Moreover, several examples of the RI applications from basic research, clinics and optics industry are outlined. This study may provide a comprehensive reference for RI data of biological tissues for the biomedical research and beyond. Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier B.V.