Indexed on: 12 Feb '17Published on: 12 Feb '17Published in: FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Intestinal inflammation is associated with low levels of mucosal ATP, highlighting the importance of mitochondrial function associated with ATP production in the pathophysiology of the disease. In the inflamed colon of humans and mice, we found decreased levels of mitochondrial complex cytochrome c oxidase I/IV and lower ATP levels. Thus, we generated colonic ρ(0) cells with reduced mitochondrial function linked to ATP production by selective depletion of mitochondrial DNA. In these cells, RNA sequencing revealed a substantial number of differentially expressed transcripts, among which 240 belonged to inflammatory pathways activated in human inflamed colon and TNF-α-treated cells (false discovery rate < 0.05). TNF-α treatment of colonic ρ(0) cells augmented IL-8 expression by 9-fold (P < 0.01) via NF-κB compared to TNF-α-treated control. Moreover, reduced mitochondrial function facilitated TNF-α-mediated NF-κB luciferase promoter activity as a result of lowered inhibitory IκBα (nuclear factor of κ light polypeptide gene enhancer in B cells inhibitor, α), leading to elevated NF-κB. In cells with reduced mitochondrial function, TNF-α facilitated AMPKα2 activation by 8-fold (P < 0.01), which was involved in NF-κB-dependent IL-8 expression. Last, in human and mouse colon, anti-TNF-α treatment restored reduced mitochondria-dependent inflammation. We propose that selective targeting of this novel mechanism provides new treatment opportunities for intestinal inflammation.-Heller, S., Penrose, H. M., Cable, C., Biswas, D., Nakhoul, H., Baddoo, M., Flemington, E., Crawford, S. E., Savkovic, S. D. Reduced mitochondrial activity in colonocytes facilitates AMPKα2-dependent inflammation.