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RECHARGEABLE LITHIUM BATTERY

Imported: 10 Mar '17 | Published: 27 Nov '08

Su-Yeong PARK, Nam-Soon Choi, Kyoung-Han Yew, Doo-Kyoung Lee, Sung-Soo Kim

USPTO - Utility Patents

Abstract

A rechargeable lithium battery including: a negative electrode comprising lithium-vanadium oxide having the following Formula 1 and being capable of intercalating and deintercalating lithium ions, and a carbon-based material; a positive electrode comprising a positive active material capable of intercalating and deintercalating lithium ions; and an electrolyte comprising a monomer including alkylene oxide and a reactive double bond, a lithium salt, and a non-aqueous organic solvent.


LixMyVzO2+dChemical Formula 1

In Formula 1, 0.1x2.5, 0y0.5, 0.5z1.5, 0d0.5, and M is at least one metal selected from the group consisting of Al, Cr, Mo, Ti, W, and Zr.

Description

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application claims the benefit of Korean Application No. 2007-16081 filed Feb. 15, 2007, in the Korean Intellectual Property Office, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein, by reference.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

1. Field of the Invention

Aspects of the present invention relate to a rechargeable lithium battery having improved cycle-life characteristics.

2. Description of the Related Art

Rechargeable lithium batteries have recently drawn attention as power sources for small portable electronic devices. Rechargeable lithium batteries use an organic electrolyte solution, have a high energy density, and have a discharge voltage twice as high as conventional batteries that use an alkali aqueous solution.

Rechargeable lithium batteries can have a positive active material, for example a lithium-transition element composite oxide capable of intercalating lithium. For example, LiCoO2, LiMn2O4, LiNiO2, LiNi1xCoxO2 (0x1), LiMnO2, and the like, have been researched.

Rechargeable lithium batteries can have a negative active material namely, various carbon-based materials. For example, artificial and natural graphite, and hard carbon, all of which can intercalate and deintercalate lithium ions. The use of graphite increases a discharge voltage and the energy density of a battery, because graphite has a relatively low discharge potential of 0.2V, as compared to lithium. A battery using graphite as a negative active material has a high average discharge potential of 3.6V and an excellent energy density. Furthermore, graphite is the most comprehensively used of the aforementioned carbon-based materials, since graphite guarantees better cycle-life characteristics for a battery, due to its outstanding reversibility. However, a graphite active material has a low density, and consequently, a low capacity (theoretical capacity: 2.2 g/cc), in terms of energy density per unit volume, when used as a negative active material. Furthermore, the use of a graphite active material entails possible dangers when a battery is misused, overcharged, and the like, such as, explosion or combustion, since graphite is likely to react with an organic electrolyte, at a high discharge voltage.

In order to solve these problems, a great deal of research on oxide negative electrodes has recently been performed. For example, amorphous tin oxide, developed by Japan Fuji Film Co., Ltd., has a high capacity per weight (800 mAh/g). However, this oxide has resulted in some critical deficiencies, such as having a high initial irreversible capacity of up to 50%. Furthermore, amorphous tin oxide has a discharge potential of more than 0.5V and shows a smooth voltage profile, which is unique to the amorphous phase. Consequently, it is difficult to establish a tin oxide that is applicable to a battery. Furthermore tin oxide tends to be reduced to tin, during a charge/discharge reaction, which is a disadvantage for use in a battery.

Referring to another oxide negative electrode, a negative active material of LiaMgbVOc (0.05a3, 0.12b2, 22c-a-2b5) is disclosed in Japanese Patent Publication No. 2002-216753. A lithium secondary battery including Li1.1V0.9O2 an oxide negative electrode was also presented in the 2002 Japanese Battery Conference (Preview No. 3B05). Such oxide negative electrodes do not show sufficient battery performance, and therefore, there has been a great deal of further research into oxide negative active materials.

Referring to yet another oxide negative electrode, a negative active material of a vanadium oxide not including Li was disclosed in Solid State Ionics, 139, 57-65, 2001 and Journal of Power Source, 81-82, 651-655, 1999. However, this active material has a different crystal structure from the active materials of the present invention. In addition, since the active material has an average discharge potential of more than 1.0 V, it may have problems when used as a negative electrode.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Embodiments of the present invention provide a rechargeable lithium battery that can suppress side-reactions at the interface of an oxide-based negative electrode and an electrolyte, and can thereby improve cycle-life characteristics.

According to various embodiments of the present invention, provided is a rechargeable lithium battery that includes: a negative electrode including lithium-vanadium oxide, having the following Formula 1, which is capable of intercalating and deintercalating lithium ions, and a carbon-based material; a positive electrode including a positive active material capable of intercalating and deintercalating lithium ions; and an electrolyte including a monomer including alkylene oxide and a reactive double bond, a lithium salt, and a non-aqueous organic solvent.


LixMyVzO2+d [Chemical Formula 1]

In Formula 1, 0.1x2.5, 0y0.5, 0.5z1.5, 0d0.5, and M is at least one metal selected from the group consisting of Al, Cr, Mo, Ti, W, and Zr.

According to various embodiments of the present invention, the negative electrode includes a lithium-vanadium oxide core material of the above Formula 1 and a carbon-based material coated thereon. The carbon-based material includes at least one selected from the group consisting of natural graphite, artificial graphite, graphitized carbon fiber, graphitized mesocarbon microbeads, fullerenes, amorphous carbon, and mixtures thereof.

The monomer may be represented by the following Formula 2.

In Formula 2, R1, R3, and R5 are each independently hydrogen or an alkyl, R2 is an alkyl, R4 is an alkoxy, and n is an integer ranging from 1n10.

The monomer includes at least one selected from the group consisting of ethylene glycol methylether(metha)acrylate [EGME(M)A], ethylene glycol phenylether(metha)acrylate [EGPE(M)A], diethylene glycol methylether(metha)acrylate [DEGME(M)A], diethylene glycol 2-ethylhexylether(metha)acrylate [DEGEHE(M)A], polyethylene glycol methylether(metha)acrylate [PEGME(M)A], polyethylene glycol ethylether(metha)acrylate [PEGEE(M)A], polyethylene glycol 4-nonylphenylether(metha)acrylate [PEGNPE(M)A], polyethylene glycol phenylether(metha)acrylate [PEGPE(M)A], ethylene glycol dicyclopentenyl ether(metha)acrylate [EGDCPE(M)A], polypropylene glycol methylether(metha)acrylate [PPGME(M)A], polypropylene glycol 4-nonylphenylether(metha)acrylate, dipropylene glycol allylether(metha)acrylate, and mixtures thereof. The monomer may be present in an amount of 0.01 to 5 wt %, based on the total weight of the electrolyte.

The lithium salt may be at least one selected from the group consisting of LiBOB, LiFOB, LiPF6, LiBF4, LiSbF6, LiAsF6, LiClO4, LiCF3SO3, LiC4F9SO3, LiN(CF3SO2)2, LiN(C2F5SO2)2, LiAlO4, LiAlCl4, LiN(CpF2p+1SO2)(CqF2q+1SO2), where p and q are natural numbers, LiSO3CF3, LiCl, Lil, and combinations thereof. The lithium salt may be used at a concentration ranging from about 0.7 to 2M.

The non-aqueous organic solvent may include an organic solvent selected from the group consisting of a carbonate-based solvent, an ester-based solvent, an ether-based solvent, a ketone-based solvent, and mixtures thereof. The carbonate-based solvent may include a mixture of a cyclic carbonate and a linear carbonate, in a volume ratio ranging from about 1:1 to 1:9.

The cyclic carbonate may be at least one selected from the group consisting of ethylene carbonate (EC), propylene carbonate (PC), butylenecarbonate (BC), -butyrolactone (-BL), and mixtures thereof. The linear carbonate includes at least one selected from the group consisting of dimethyl carbonate (DMC), diethyl carbonate (DEC), dipropyl carbonate (DPC), methylpropyl carbonate (MPC), ethylpropyl carbonate (EPC), methylethyl carbonate (MEC), and combinations thereof.

The non-aqueous organic solvent may further include an aromatic hydrocarbon solvent. The non-aqueous organic solvent may include a carbonate-based solvent and an aromatic hydrocarbon solvent, in a volume ratio ranging from about 1:1 to 10:1.

The aromatic hydrocarbon solvent may be represented by the following Formula 3.

In Formula 3, R6 to R11 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a halogen, an alkyl, a haloalkyl, and combinations thereof.

The electrolyte may further include an additive of a compound including an ether group, an ethylene carbonate-based compound having the following Formula 4, or a combination thereof.

In Formula 4, R12 and R13 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a halogen, cyano (CN), nitro (NO2), and a fluorinated C1 to C5 alkyl, provided that at least one of R12 and R13 is a halogen, cyano (CN), nitro (NO2), and a fluorinated C1 to C5 alkyl.

The compound including an ether group selected from the group consisting of dimethoxyethane (DME), bis(2-methoxyethylether) (DGM), triethylene glycol dimethylether (TriGM), tetraethylene glycol dimethylether (TetGM), polyethylene glycol dimethylether (PEGDME), propylene glycol dimethylether (PGDME), dioxolan, and mixtures thereof. The compound including an ether group may be present in an amount ranging from about 0.05 to 5 wt %, based on the total weight of the electrolyte.

The positive active material may be selected from the group consisting of compounds represented by the following Formulae 5 to 29.


LiaA1bBbD2 [Chemical Formula 5]

In Formula 5, 0.95a1.1 and 0b0.5.


LiaE1bBbO2-cFc [Chemical Formula 6]

In Formula 6, 0.95a1.1, 0b0.5, and 0c0.05.


LiCo2bO4cFc [Chemical Formula 7]

In Formula 7, 0b0.5, and 0c0.05.


LiMn2bO4cFc [Chemical Formula 8]

In Formula 8, 0b0.5, and 0c0.05.


LiaNi1bcCObBcDa [Chemical Formula 9]

In Formula 9, 0.95a1.1, 0b0.5, 0c0.05, and 02.


LiaNi1bcCObO2F[Chemical Formula 10]

In Formula 10, 0.95a1.1, 0b0.5, 0c0.05, and 02.


LiaNi1bcCObO2F2 [Chemical Formula 11]

In Formula 11, 0.95a1.1, 0b0.5, and 0c0.05.


LiaNi1bcMnbBcD[Chemical Formula 12]

In Formula 12, 0.95a1.1, 0b0.5, 0c0.05, and 02.


LiaNi1bcMnbO2F[Chemical Formula 13]

In Formula 13, 0.95a1.1, 0b0.5, 0c0.05, and 02.


LiaNi1bcMnbO2F2 [Chemical Formula 14]

In Formula 14, 0.95a1.1, 0b0.5, and 0c0.05.


LiaNibEcGdO2 [Chemical Formula 15]

In Formula 15, 0.90a1.1, 0b0.9, 0c0.5, and 0.001d0.1.


LiaNibCocMndGeO2 [Chemical Formula 16]

In Formula 16, 0.90a1.1, 0b0.9, 0c0.5, 0d0.5, and 0.001e0.1.


LiaNiGbO2 [Chemical Formula 17]

In Formula 17, 0.90a1.1, and 0.001b0.1.


LiaCoGbO2 [Chemical Formula 18]

In Formula 18, 0.90a1.1, and 0.001b0.1.


LiaMnGbO2 [Chemical Formula 19]

In Formula 19, 0.90a1.1, and 0.001b0.1.


LiaMn2GbO4 [Chemical Formula 20]

In Formula 20, 0.90a1.1, and 0.001b0.1.


HO2 [Chemical Formula 21]


HS2 [Chemical Formula 22]


LiHS2 [Chemical Formula 23]


V2O5 [Chemical Formula 24]


LiV2O5 [Chemical Formula 25]


LilO2 [Chemical Formula 26]


LiNiVO4 [Chemical Formula 27]


Li3fJ2(PO4)3(0f3) [Chemical Formula 28]


Li3fFe2(PO4)3(0f2) [Chemical Formula 29]

In the above Formulae 5 to 29: A is selected from the group consisting of Ni, Co, Mn, and combinations thereof; B is selected from the group consisting of Al, Ni, Co, Mn, Cr, Fe, Mg, Sr, V, a rare earth element, and combinations thereof; D is selected from the group consisting of O, F, S, P, and combinations thereof; E is selected from the group consisting of Co, Mn, and combinations thereof; F is selected from the group consisting of F, S, P, and combinations thereof; G is selected from the group consisting of Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Mg, La, Ce, Sr, V, a lanthanide element, and combinations thereof, H is selected from the group consisting of Ti, Mo, Mn, and combinations thereof; I is selected from the group consisting of Cr, V, Fe, Sc, Y and combinations thereof; and J is selected from the group consisting of V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and combinations thereof.

The rechargeable lithium battery may be a lithium ion battery or a lithium polymer battery.

Additional aspects and/or advantages of the invention will be set forth in part in the description which follows and, in part, will be obvious from the description, or may be learned by practice of the invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE EMBODIMENTS

Reference will now be made in detail to the various embodiments of the present invention, examples of which are illustrated in the accompanying drawings, wherein like reference numerals refer to the like elements throughout. The embodiments are described below in order to explain the present invention by referring to the figures.

A rechargeable lithium battery, according to various embodiments, includes: a negative electrode including lithium-vanadium oxide having the following Formula 1, which is capable of intercalating and deintercalating lithium ions, and a carbon-based material; a positive electrode including a positive active material capable of intercalating and deintercalating lithium ions; and an electrolyte including a monomer including alkylene oxide and a reactive double bond, a lithium salt, and a non-aqueous organic solvent.


LixMyVzO2+d [Chemical Formula 1]

In Formula 1, 0.1x2.5, 0y0.5, 0.5z1.5, 0d0.5, and M is at least one metal selected from the group consisting of Al, Cr, Mo, Ti, W, and Zr.

The negative electrode includes a lithium-vanadium oxide of Formula 1, which is capable of intercalating and deintercalating lithium ions, and a carbon-based material. According to various embodiments of the present invention, the negative electrode includes a lithium-vanadium oxide core material of Formula 1 and a carbon-based material coated thereon.

In the negative electrode, the carbon-based material has higher conductivity than the lithium-vanadium oxide and exhibits a higher level of lithium intercalation/deintercalation than the lithium-vanadium oxide, during the charge and discharge cycles. While intercalating/deintercalating lithium, an organic solvent tends to be significantly decomposed in the carbon-based material of the negative electrode. As the intercalation/deintercalation is repeated, dendrite is produced on the outside of the negative electrode, deteriorating cycle-life characteristics. According to one embodiment of the present invention, the reduction-decomposition reaction, of the organic solvent on the surface of the negative electrode, can be minimized by forming a functional group at a negative active material, solving the cycle-life deterioration problems experienced in high-capacity rechargeable lithium batteries.

According to aspects of the present invention, a monomer, including alkylene oxide and a reactive double bond, is applied to an electrolyte, and can thereby provide a rechargeable lithium battery that suppresses side-reactions at the interface of an oxide-based negative electrode and the electrolyte, thereby improving cycle-life.

Herein, the monomer may be represented by the following Formula 2.

In Formula 2, R1, R3, and R5 are each independently hydrogen or an alkyl, R2 is an alkyl, R4 is an alkoxy, and n is an integer ranging from 1n10.

In the above Formula 2, R1 and R3 are a C1 to C6 alkyl. According to various embodiments, R1 and R3 are a C1 to C3 alkyls, R2 is a C1 to C4 alkyl, and R4 and R5 are a C1 to C6 alkyls.

The monomer includes at least one selected from the group consisting of ethylene glycol methylether(metha)acrylate [EGME(M)A], ethylene glycol phenylether(metha)acrylate [EGPE(M)A], diethylene glycol methylether(metha)acrylate [DEGME(M)A], diethylene glycol 2-ethylhexylether(metha)acrylate [DEGEHE(M)A], polyethylene glycol methylether(metha)acrylate [PEGME(M)A], polyethylene glycol ethylether(metha)acrylate [PEGEE(M)A], polyethylene glycol 4-nonylphenylether(metha)acrylate [PEGNPE(M)A], polyethylene glycol phenylether(metha)acrylate [PEGPE(M)A], ethylene glycol dicyclopentenyl ether(metha)acrylate [EGDCPE(M)A], polypropylene glycol methylether(metha)acrylate [PPGME(M)A], polypropylene glycol 4-nonylphenylether(metha)acrylate, dipropylene glycol allylether(metha)acrylate, and mixtures thereof.

The monomer can be present in an amount ranging from about 0.01 to 5 wt %, based on the total weight of the electrolyte. The monomer can be present in an amount ranging from about 0.05 to 3 wt %. When the monomer is present in an amount of less than about 0.01 wt %, it may have little effect and may deteriorate the softness of a thin, negative electrode membrane. When the monomer is included in an amount of more than about 5 wt %, an excessively thick film may be formed, decreasing ion conductivity and increasing cell resistance, thereby degrading cycle-life characteristics.

When an electrolyte, including a monomer of the present invention, is used to fabricate a rechargeable lithium battery, the electrolyte can form a polymer film, having a plurality of alkylene oxide groups, that is disposed around a negative active material. The polymer film can minimize the decomposition of a non-aqueous organic solvent.

The monomer including the alkylene oxide and a reactive double bond is added to a lithium salt dissolved in a non-aqueous organic solvent, to constitute an electrolyte. The lithium salt is dissolved in the non-aqueous organic solvent, to supply lithium ions in the battery. The lithium salt may facilitate the basic operation of a rechargeable lithium battery, and can facilitate the transmission of lithium ions between the positive and negative electrodes.

The lithium salt may be at least one selected from the group consisting of LiBOB, LiFOB, LiPF6, LiBF4, LiSbF6, LiAsF6, LiClO4, LiCF3SO3, LiC4F9SO3, LiN(CF3SO2)2, LiN(C2F5SO2)2, LiAlO4, LiAlCl4, LiN(CpF2p+1SO2)(CqF2q+1SO2), where p and q are natural numbers, LiSO3CF3, LiCl, Lil, and combinations thereof. The lithium salt may be used in a concentration ranging from about 0.7 to 2.0M. When the lithium salt concentration is less than about 0.7M, electrolyte performance may be degraded, due to low electrolyte conductivity. When the lithium salt concentration is more than about 2.0M, lithium ion mobility may be reduced, due to an increase of the electrolyte's viscosity.

The non-aqueous organic solvent acts as a medium for transmitting ions taking part in the electrochemical reactions of the battery. The non-aqueous organic solvent may include an organic solvent selected from the group consisting of a carbonate-based solvent, an ester-based solvent, an ether-based solvent, a ketone-based solvent, and mixtures thereof. Examples of the carbonate-based solvent may include dimethyl carbonate (DMC), diethyl carbonate (DEC), dipropyl carbonate (DPC), methylpropyl carbonate (MPC), ethylpropyl carbonate (EPC), methylethyl carbonate (MEC), ethylmethyl carbonate (EMC), ethylene carbonate (EC), propylene carbonate (PC), butylene carbonate (BC), and the like. Examples of the ester-based solvent may include n-methyl acetate, n-ethyl acetate, n-propyl acetate, dimethylacetate, methylpropinonate, ethylpropinonate, -butyrolactone, decanolide, valerolactone, mevalonolactone, caprolactone, and the like. Examples of the ether-based solvent include dibutyl ether, tetraglyme, diglyme, dimethoxyethane, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, tetrahydrofuran, and the like. Examples of the ketone-based solvent include cyclohexanone, and the like.

The non-aqueous organic solvent may be used singularly or in a mixture. When the organic solvent is used in a mixture, a mixture ratio can be controlled in accordance with a desirable battery performance.

The carbonate-based solvent may include a mixture of a cyclic carbonate and a linear carbonate. The cyclic carbonate, for example, includes at least one selected from the group consisting of ethylene carbonate, butylenes carbonate, propylene carbonate, -butyrolactone, and the like. The cyclic carbonate can solvate lithium ions, and thereby improve the ion conductivity of the electrolyte.

The linear carbonate, for example, includes at least one selected from the group consisting of dimethyl carbonate, methylethyl carbonate, diethyl carbonate, and the like. The linear carbonate has low viscosity and reduces the viscosity of the electrolyte, resulting in an increased ion conductivity. Since the linear carbonate has a low flash point, it may lower a flash point of the electrolyte, if added in an excessive amount. When the cyclic carbonate and the chain carbonate are mixed together in the volume ratio ranging from about 1:1 to 1:9, the electrolyte performance may be enhanced.

The non-aqueous organic solvent may include a carbonate-based solvent and an aromatic hydrocarbon solvent in a volume ratio ranging from about 1:1 to 30:1.

The aromatic hydrocarbon solvent may be represented by the following Formula 3.

In Formula 3, R6 to R11 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a halogen, an alkyl, a haloalkyl, and combinations thereof.

The aromatic hydrocarbon-based organic solvent may include, but is not limited to, at least one selected from the group consisting of benzene, fluorobenzene, 1,2-difluorobenzene, 1,3-difluorobenzene, 1,4-difluorobenzene, 1,2,3-trifluorobenzene, 1,2,4-trifluorobenzene, chlorobenzene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, 1,3-dichlorobenzene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene, 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, iodobenzene, 1,2-diiodobenzene, 1,3-diiodobenzene, 1,4-diiodobenzene, 1,2,3-triiodobenzene, 1,2,4-triiodobenzene, toluene, fluorotoluene, 1,2-difluorotoluene, 1,3-difluorotoluene, 1,4-difluorotoluene, 1,2,3-trifluorotoluene, 1,2,4-trifluorotoluene, chlorotoluene, 1,2-dichlorotoluene, 1,3-dichlorotoluene, 1,4-dichlorotoluene, 1,2,3-trichlorotoluene, 1,2,4-trichlorotoluene, iodotoluene, 1,2-diiodotoluene, 1,3-diiodotoluene, 1,4-diiodotoluene, 1,2,3-triiodotoluene, 1,2,4-triiodotoluene, xylene, and combinations thereof.

The rechargeable lithium battery generally includes a positive electrode, a negative electrode, and an electrolyte. The battery may further include a separator as needed. The separator may be any suitable separator material used in conventional lithium secondary batteries. Non-limiting examples of suitable separator materials include polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinylidene fluoride, and multi-layers thereof, such as, a polyethylene/polypropylene double-layered separator, a polyethylene/polypropylene/polyethylene triple-layered separator, or a polypropylene/polyethylene/polypropylene triple-layered separator.

The electrolyte may further include an additive. The additive can includes a compound including an ether group or an ethylene carbonate-based compound. The compound including an ether group can include at least one selected from the group consisting of dimethoxyethane (DME), bis(2-methoxyethylether) (DGM), triethylene glycol dimethylether (TriGM), tetraethylene glycol dimethylether (TetGM), polyethylene glycol dimethylether (PEGDME), propylene glycol dimethylether (PGDME), dioxolan, and mixtures thereof. According to various embodiments, tetraethylene glycol dimethylether (TetGM) may be the compound including an ether group. The compound including an ether group can also include an ethylene oxide group and thereby can suppress a reduction-decomposition reaction of an organic solvent, on the surface of the negative active material.

The compound including an ether group may be present in an amount ranging from about 0.05 to 5 wt %, based on the total weight of the electrolyte. The compound including an ether group may be present in an amount ranging from about 0.05 to 3 wt %. When the amount of the compound including an ether group is present in less than about 0.01 wt %, dissociation of lithium ions decreases. Thus, ion conductivity may be reduced. When the amount of the compound including an ether group is present in more than about 5 wt %, the mechanical properties of a film may be degraded.

The ethylene carbonate-based compound for improving thermal safety of the rechargeable lithium battery has the following Formula 4.

In Formula 4, R12 and R13 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a halogen, cyano (CN), nitro (NO2), and a fluorinated C1 to C5 alkyl, provided that at least one of R12 and R13 is a halogen, cyano (CN), nitro (NO2), and a fluorinated C1 to C5 alkyl.

Specific examples of the ethylene carbonate-based compound include at least one selected from the group consisting of fluoroethylene carbonate, difluoroethylene carbonate, chloroethylene carbonate, dichloroethylene carbonate, bromoethylene carbonate, dibromoethylene carbonate, nitroethylene carbonate, cyanoethylene carbonate, and mixtures thereof. According to various embodiments, the ethylene carbonate-based compound is fluoroethylene carbonate.

A protection film with an appropriate density can be formed through a radical polymerization reaction during the first charge reaction. In addition, lithium ions can be transferred to a negative electrode including a lithium-vanadium oxide, due to an additive such as ethylene glycol or the like, that is dissolved in a solvent. The additive can be well-transferred during the charge/discharge cycle, due to a good wet-ability thereof.

FIG. 1 schematically shows a rechargeable lithium battery 1, according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention. Referring to FIG. 1, the rechargeable lithium battery 1 includes a negative electrode 2, a positive electrode 3, a separator 4 interposed between the negative electrode 2 and the positive electrode 3, and an electrolyte (not shown), in which the separator 4 is immersed. The rechargeable lithium battery 1 includes a cell case 5 and a sealing member 6 to seal the cell case 5. The rechargeable lithium battery 1 is shown as having a cylindrical shape, however the rechargeable lithium battery 1 may be formed in various shapes, such as, prismatic shaped, coin shaped, or sheet shaped.

The negative electrode 2 includes a current collector, and a negative active material layer disposed on the current collector. The negative active material layer includes a negative active material. The negative active material can include a metal oxide of the following Formula 1, a carbon-based material, and a binder. The negative active material can include a core material of a lithium-vanadium oxide represented by Formula 1 and a carbon-based material coated on the surface of the core material.


LixMyVzO2+d [Chemical Formula 1]

In Formula 1, 0.1x2.5, 0y0.5, 0.5z1.5, 0d0.5, and M is at least one metal selected from the group consisting of Al, Cr, Mo, Ti, W, and Zr. When x, y, z, and d are out of the aforementioned range, the negative active material may have a high average potential of more than 1.0V, against a lithium metal, resulting in a decreasing discharge voltage.

The carbon-based material includes at least one selected from the group consisting of natural graphite, artificial graphite, graphitized carbon fiber, graphitized mesocarbon microbeads, fullerenes, amorphous carbon, and mixtures thereof. According to some embodiments, the artificial graphite or the natural graphite may be used as the carbon-based material.

The current collector may be selected from the group consisting of a copper foil, a nickel foil, a stainless steel foil, a titanium foil, a nickel foam, a copper foam, a polymer substrate coated with a conductive metal, and combinations thereof. According to some embodiments, the copper foil or the nickel foil may be used as the current collector.

Examples of the binder include polyvinyl alcohol, carboxylmethyl cellulose, hydroxypropylene cellulose, diacetylene cellulose, polyvinylchloride, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polytetrafluoroethylene, polyvinylidene fluoride, polyethylene, or polypropylene, but are not limited thereto.

In the electrode negative electrode 2, a conductive agent may be included in order to improve conductivity of the negative active material. Any electrically conductive material can be used as the conductive agent, provided the conductive material does not chemically react in the battery 1. Examples of the conductive agent include natural graphite, artificial graphite, carbon black, acetylene black, ketjen black, a carbon fiber, a metal powder, a metal fiber including copper, nickel, aluminum, silver, and the like, or a polyphenylene derivative.

The positive electrode 3 includes a positive active material. The positive active material can be a lithiated intercalation compound capable of intercalating and deintercalating lithium ions. For example, the lithiated intercalation compound may be a composite oxide including lithium and a metal selected from the group consisting of cobalt, manganese, nickel, and combinations thereof. The lithiated intercalation compound may be a compound selected from the group consisting of the compounds represented by the following Formulae 5 to 29.


LiaA1bBbD2 [Chemical Formula 5]

In Formula 5, 0.95a1.1 and 0b0.5.


LiaE1bBbO2-cFc [Chemical Formula 6]

In Formula 6, 0.95a1.1, 0b0.5, and 0c0.05.


LiCo2bO4cFc [Chemical Formula 7]

In Formula 7, 0b0.5, and 0c0.05.


LiMn2bO4cFc [Chemical Formula 8]

In Formula 8, 0b0.5, and 0c0.05.


LiaNi1bcCObBcDa [Chemical Formula 9]

In Formula 9, 0.95a1.1, 0b0.5, 0c0.05, and 02.


LiaNi1bcCObO2F[Chemical Formula 10]

In Formula 10, 0.95a1.1, 0b0.5, 0c0.05, and 02.


LiaNi1bcCObO2F2 [Chemical Formula 11]

In Formula 11, 0.95a1.1, 0b0.5, and 0c0.05.


LiaNi1bcMnbBcD[Chemical Formula 12]

In Formula 12, 0.95a1.1, 0b0.5, 0c0.05, and 02.


LiaNi1bcMnbO2F[Chemical Formula 13]

In Formula 13, 0.95a1.1, 0b0.5, 0c0.05, and 02.


LiaNi1bcMnbO2F2 [Chemical Formula 14]

In Formula 14, 0.95a1.1, 0b0.5, and 0c0.05.


LiaNibEcGdO2 [Chemical Formula 15]

In Formula 15, 0.90a1.1, 0b0.9, 0c0.5, and 0.001d0.1.


LiaNibCocMndGeO2 [Chemical Formula 16]

In Formula 16, 0.90a1.1, 0b0.9, 0c0.5, 0d0.5, and 0.001e0.1.


LiaNiGbO2 [Chemical Formula 17]

In Formula 17, 0.90a1.1, and 0.001b0.1.


LiaCoGbO2 [Chemical Formula 18]

In Formula 18, 0.90a1.1, and 0.001b0.1.


LiaMnGbO2 [Chemical Formula 19]

In Formula 19, 0.90a1.1, and 0.001b0.1.


LiaMn2GbO4 [Chemical Formula 20]

In Formula 20, 0.90a1.1, and 0.001b0.1.


HO2 [Chemical Formula 21]


HS2 [Chemical Formula 22]


LiHS2 [Chemical Formula 23]


V2O5 [Chemical Formula 24]


LiV2O5 [Chemical Formula 25]


LilO2 [Chemical Formula 26]


LiNiVO4 [Chemical Formula 27]


Li3fJ2(PO4)3(0f3) [Chemical Formula 28]


Li3fFe2(PO4)3(0f2) [Chemical Formula 29]

In the above Formulae 5 to 29: A is selected from the group consisting of Ni, Co, Mn, and combinations thereof; B is selected from the group consisting of Al, Ni, Co, Mn, Cr, Fe, Mg, Sr, V, a rare earth element, and combinations thereof; D is selected from the group consisting of O, F, S, P, and combinations thereof; E is selected from the group consisting of Co, Mn, and combinations thereof; F is selected from the group consisting of F, S, P, and combinations thereof; G is selected from the group consisting of Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Mg, La, Ce, Sr, V, a lanthanide element, and combinations thereof, H is selected from the group consisting of Ti, Mo, Mn, and combinations thereof; I is selected from the group consisting of Cr, V, Fe, Sc, Y, and combinations thereof; and J is selected from the group consisting of V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and combinations thereof.

The positive electrode 3 can be fabricated as follows: a positive active material composition, including the positive active material, a binder, and optionally a conductive agent mixed in a solvent, is applied on a positive current collector. The positive current collector can be aluminum.

Rechargeable lithium batteries may be classified as lithium ion batteries, lithium ion polymer batteries, and lithium polymer batteries, according to the presence of a separator and the kind of electrolyte used in the battery. The rechargeable lithium batteries may be formed as a variety of shapes and sizes, including as cylindrical shaped, prismatic shaped, sheet shaped and coin shaped. They may be a thin film battery or be rather bulky in size. Structures and fabricating methods for lithium ion batteries, pertaining to aspects of the present invention, are well known in the art.

The following examples illustrate aspects of the present invention in more detail. These examples, however, should not in any sense be interpreted as limiting the scope of the present invention.

EXAMPLE 1

Ethylenecarbonate (EC), dimethylcarbonate (DEC), and ethylmethylcarbonate (EMC) were mixed in a volume ratio of 30:30:70, to prepare a mixed solvent. Then, 1.3M of LiPF6 was dissolved in the mixed solvent, and 3 wt % of polyethylene glycol methylether methacrylate was added thereto, to prepare an electrolyte.

Next, a lithium-vanadium oxide negative active material, coated with a carbon-based material, was mixed with a polyvinylidene fluoride binder and a super-P conductive agent, in a composition weight ratio of 94/3/3, in a mixed N-methylpyrrolidone solvent, to prepare a negative active material slurry. The slurry was coated on an aluminum current collector, dried, and compressed to prepare a negative electrode.

To prepare a positive active material slurry, an LiCoO2 positive active material, a polyvinylidene fluoride binder, and a super-P conductive agent were mixed, in a composition weight ratio of 94/3/3, in a mixed solvent of N-methylpyrrolidone. The slurry was coated on an aluminum current collector, dried, and compressed, to prepare a positive electrode.

The positive electrode, the negative electrode, and the electrolyte were used to fabricate a rechargeable lithium battery cell, according to a conventional method.

COMPARATIVE EXAMPLE 1

A rechargeable lithium battery cell was fabricated according to the same method as in Example 1, except without using the 3 wt % of polyethylene glycol methylether methacrylate.

The rechargeable lithium battery cells fabricated according to Example 1 and Comparative Example 1 were charged with 0.8 C, up to 4.35V, and discharged at 1 C down to 2.75V, over 50 cycles. Their capacity retentions up to the 50th cycle were measured twice, and the results are shown in FIG. 2. The capacity retention after the 50th charge/discharge cycle can be calculated by a ratio of the discharge capacity at the 1st charge/discharge cycle to the discharge capacity at the 50th charge/discharge cycle. As shown in FIG. 2, the lithium rechargeable battery cell according to Example 1 (including the polymer film at the negative electrode) had excellent cycle-life characteristics as compared to Comparative Example 1. The lithium rechargeable battery cell of Comparative Example 1 did not include a polymer film, and demonstrated sharply degraded cycle-life characteristics beginning at the 40th charge/discharge cycle. In addition, the lithium rechargeable battery cell of Example 1 had greater initial discharge capacity retention, as compared with that of Comparative Example 1.

The electrolyte for a rechargeable lithium battery, according to aspects of the present invention, can suppress the reactivity of a negative electrode and can stabilize the surface of the negative electrode, due to a polymer film formed on the negative electrode, resulting in an improvement of cycle-life characteristics.

Although a few embodiments of the present invention have been shown and described, it would be appreciated by those skilled in the art that changes may be made in this embodiment without departing from the principles and spirit of the invention, the scope of which is defined in the claims and their equivalents.

Claims

1. A rechargeable lithium battery comprising:
a negative electrode comprising a carbon-based material and a lithium-vanadium oxide according to the following Formula 1, which is capable of intercalating and deintercalating lithium ions;
a positive electrode comprising a positive active material capable of intercalating and deintercalating lithium ions; and
an electrolyte comprising a monomer comprising an alkylene oxide and a reactive double bond, a lithium salt, and a non-aqueous organic solvent,

LixMyVzO2+d Formula 1:
wherein 0.1x2.5, 0y0.5, 0.5z1.5, 0d0.5, and M is at least one metal selected from the group consisting of Al, Cr, Mo, Ti, W, and Zr.
a negative electrode comprising a carbon-based material and a lithium-vanadium oxide according to the following Formula 1, which is capable of intercalating and deintercalating lithium ions;
a positive electrode comprising a positive active material capable of intercalating and deintercalating lithium ions; and
an electrolyte comprising a monomer comprising an alkylene oxide and a reactive double bond, a lithium salt, and a non-aqueous organic solvent,

LixMyVzO2+d Formula 1:
wherein 0.1x2.5, 0y0.5, 0.5z1.5, 0d0.5, and M is at least one metal selected from the group consisting of Al, Cr, Mo, Ti, W, and Zr.

LixMyVzO2+d Formula 1:
2. The rechargeable lithium battery of claim 1, wherein the monomer is represented by the following Formula 2:
wherein R1, R3, and R5 are each independently hydrogen or an alkyl, R2 is an alkyl, R4 is an alkoxy, and n is an integer ranging from 1n10.
wherein R1, R3, and R5 are each independently hydrogen or an alkyl, R2 is an alkyl, R4 is an alkoxy, and n is an integer ranging from 1n10.
3. The rechargeable lithium battery of claim 1, wherein the carbon-based material comprises at least one selected from the group consisting of natural graphite, artificial graphite, graphitized carbon fiber, graphitized mesocarbon microbeads, fullerenes, amorphous carbon, and a combination thereof.
4. The rechargeable lithium battery of claim 1, wherein the negative electrode comprises a core comprising the lithium-vanadium oxide and a coating disposed thereon comprising the carbon-based material.
5. The rechargeable lithium battery of claim 1, wherein the monomer comprises at least one selected from the group consisting of ethylene glycol methylether(metha)acrylate [EGME(M)A], ethylene glycol phenylether(metha)acrylate [EGPE(M)A], diethylene glycol methylether(metha)acrylate [DEGME(M)A], diethylene glycol 2-ethylhexylether(metha)acrylate [DEGEHE(M)A], polyethylene glycol methylether(metha)acrylate [PEGME(M)A], polyethylene glycol ethylether(metha)acrylate [PEGEE(M)A], polyethylene glycol 4-nonylphenylether(metha)acrylate [PEGNPE(M)A], polyethylene glycol phenylether(metha)acrylate [PEGPE(M)A], ethylene glycol dicyclopentenyl ether(metha)acrylate [EGDCPE(M)A], polypropylene glycol methylether(metha)acrylate [PPGME(M)A], polypropylene glycol 4-nonylphenylether(metha)acrylate, dipropylene glycol allylether(metha)acrylate, and a combination thereof.
6. The rechargeable lithium battery of claim 1, wherein the monomer is present in an amount of about 0.01 to 5 wt % based on the total weight of the electrolyte.
7. The rechargeable lithium battery of claim 1, wherein the lithium salt is at least one selected from the group consisting of LiBOB, LiFOB, LiPF6, LiBF4, LiSbF6, LiAsF6, LiClO4, LiCF3SO3, LiC4F9SO3, LiN(CF3SO2)2, LiN(C2F5SO2)2, LiAlO4, LiAlCl4, LiN(CpF2p+1SO2)(CqF2q+1SO2) where p and q are natural numbers, LiSO3CF3, LiCl, Lil, and a combination thereof.
8. The rechargeable lithium battery of claim 1, wherein the lithium salt is present at a concentration of about 0.7 to 2M.
9. The rechargeable lithium battery of claim 1, wherein the non-aqueous organic solvent comprises an organic solvent selected from the group consisting of a carbonate-based solvent, an ester-based solvent, an ether-based solvent, a ketone-based solvent, and a combination thereof.
10. The rechargeable lithium battery of claim 1, wherein the non-aqueous organic solvent comprises a cyclic carbonate and a linear carbonate in a volume ratio of about 1:1 to 1:9.
11. The rechargeable lithium battery of claim 10, wherein the cyclic carbonate comprises at least one selected from the group consisting of ethylene carbonate (EC), propylene carbonate (PC), butylenecarbonate (BC), -butyrolactone (-BL), and a combination thereof.
12. The rechargeable lithium battery of claim 10, wherein the linear carbonate comprises at least one selected from the group consisting of dimethyl carbonate (DMC), diethyl carbonate (DEC), dipropyl carbonate (DPC), methylpropyl carbonate (MPC), ethylpropyl carbonate (EPC), methylethyl carbonate (MEC), and a combination thereof.
13. The rechargeable lithium battery of claim 10, wherein the non-aqueous organic solvent further comprises an aromatic hydrocarbon solvent.
14. The rechargeable lithium battery of claim 13, wherein the non-aqueous organic solvent comprises a carbonate-based solvent and an aromatic hydrocarbon solvent in a volume ratio of about 1:1 to 10:1.
15. The rechargeable lithium battery of claim 13, wherein the aromatic hydrocarbon solvent is represented by the following Formula 3:
wherein R6 to R11 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a halogen, an alkyl, a haloalkyl, and a combination thereof.
wherein R6 to R11 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a halogen, an alkyl, a haloalkyl, and a combination thereof.
16. The rechargeable lithium battery of claim 1, wherein the electrolyte further comprises an additive of a compound comprising an ether group, an ethylene carbonate-based compound having the following Formula 4, or a mixture thereof,
wherein R12 and R13 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a halogen, cyano (CN), nitro (NO2), and a fluorinated C1 to C5 alkyl; and at least one of R12 and R13 is a halogen, cyano (CN), nitro (NO2), and a fluorinated C1 to C5 alkyl.
wherein R12 and R13 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a halogen, cyano (CN), nitro (NO2), and a fluorinated C1 to C5 alkyl; and at least one of R12 and R13 is a halogen, cyano (CN), nitro (NO2), and a fluorinated C1 to C5 alkyl.
17. The rechargeable lithium battery of claim 16, wherein the compound comprising an ether group is selected from the group consisting of dimethoxyethane (DME), bis(2-methoxyethylether) (DGM), triethylene glycol dimethylether (TriGM), tetraethylene glycol dimethylether (TetGM), polyethylene glycol dimethylether (PEGDME), propylene glycol dimethylether (PGDME), dioxolan, and a combination thereof.
18. The rechargeable lithium battery of claim 16, wherein the compound comprising an ether group is present in an amount of about 0.05 to 5 wt % based on the total weight of the electrolyte.
19. The rechargeable lithium battery of claim 1, wherein the positive active material is selected from the group consisting of the compounds of the following Formulae 5 to 29:

LiaA1bBbD2 Chemical Formula 5
wherein 0.95a1.1 and 0b0.5.

LiaE1bBbO2-cFc Chemical Formula 6
wherein 0.95a1.1, 0b0.5, and 0c0.05.

LiCo2bO4cFc Chemical Formula 7
wherein 0b0.5, and 0c0.05.

LiMn2bO4cFc Chemical Formula 8
wherein 0b0.5, and 0c0.05.

LiaNi1bcCObBcDa Chemical Formula 9
wherein 0.95a1.1, 0b0.5, 0c0.05, and 02.

LiaNi1bcCObO2FChemical Formula 10
wherein 0.95a1.1, 0b0.5, 0c0.05, and 02.

LiaNi1bcCObO2F2 Chemical Formula 11
wherein 0.95a1.1, 0b0.5, and 0c0.05.

LiaNi1bcMnbBcDChemical Formula 12
wherein 0.95a1.1, 0b0.5, 0c0.05, and 02.

LiaNi1bcMnbO2FChemical Formula 13
wherein 0.95a1.1, 0b0.5, 0c0.05, and 02.

LiaNi1bcMnbO2F2 Chemical Formula 14
wherein 0.95a1.1, 0b0.5, and 0c0.05.

LiaNibEcGdO2 Chemical Formula 15
wherein 0.90a1.1, 0b0.9, 0c0.5, and 0.001d0.1.

LiaNibCocMndGeO2 Chemical Formula 16
wherein 0.90a1.1, 0b0.9, 0c0.5, 0d0.5, and 0.001e0.1.

LiaNiGbO2 Chemical Formula 17
wherein 0.90a1.1, and 0.001b0.1.

LiaCoGbO2 Chemical Formula 18
wherein 0.90a1.1, and 0.001b0.1.

LiaMnGbO2 Chemical Formula 19
wherein 0.90a1.1, and 0.001b0.1.

LiaMn2GbO4 Chemical Formula 20
wherein 0.90a1.1, and 0.001b0.1.

HO2 Chemical Formula 21

HS2 Chemical Formula 22

LiHS2 Chemical Formula 23

V2O5 Chemical Formula 24

LiV2O5 Chemical Formula 25

LilO2 [Chemical Formula 26

LiNiVO4 Chemical Formula 27

Li3fJ2(PO4)3(0f3) Chemical Formula 28

and

Li3fFe2(PO4)3(0f2) Chemical Formula 29
wherein in the above Formulae 5 to 29: A is selected from the group consisting of Ni, Co, Mn, and a combination thereof; B is selected from the group consisting of Al, Ni, Co, Mn, Cr, Fe, Mg, Sr, V, a rare earth element, and a combination thereof; D is selected from the group consisting of O, F, S, P, and a combination thereof; E is selected from the group consisting of Co, Mn, and a combination thereof; F is selected from the group consisting of F, S, P, and a combination thereof; G is selected from the group consisting of Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Mg, La, Ce, Sr, V, a lanthanide element, and a combination thereof, H is selected from the group consisting of Ti, Mo, Mn, and a combination thereof; I is selected from the group consisting of Cr, V, Fe, Sc, Y, and a combination thereof; J is selected from the group consisting of V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and a combination thereof.

LiaA1bBbD2 Chemical Formula 5
wherein 0.95a1.1 and 0b0.5.

LiaE1bBbO2-cFc Chemical Formula 6
wherein 0.95a1.1, 0b0.5, and 0c0.05.

LiCo2bO4cFc Chemical Formula 7
wherein 0b0.5, and 0c0.05.

LiMn2bO4cFc Chemical Formula 8
wherein 0b0.5, and 0c0.05.

LiaNi1bcCObBcDa Chemical Formula 9
wherein 0.95a1.1, 0b0.5, 0c0.05, and 02.

LiaNi1bcCObO2FChemical Formula 10
wherein 0.95a1.1, 0b0.5, 0c0.05, and 02.

LiaNi1bcCObO2F2 Chemical Formula 11
wherein 0.95a1.1, 0b0.5, and 0c0.05.

LiaNi1bcMnbBcDChemical Formula 12
wherein 0.95a1.1, 0b0.5, 0c0.05, and 02.

LiaNi1bcMnbO2FChemical Formula 13
wherein 0.95a1.1, 0b0.5, 0c0.05, and 02.

LiaNi1bcMnbO2F2 Chemical Formula 14
wherein 0.95a1.1, 0b0.5, and 0c0.05.

LiaNibEcGdO2 Chemical Formula 15
wherein 0.90a1.1, 0b0.9, 0c0.5, and 0.001d0.1.

LiaNibCocMndGeO2 Chemical Formula 16
wherein 0.90a1.1, 0b0.9, 0c0.5, 0d0.5, and 0.001e0.1.

LiaNiGbO2 Chemical Formula 17
wherein 0.90a1.1, and 0.001b0.1.

LiaCoGbO2 Chemical Formula 18
wherein 0.90a1.1, and 0.001b0.1.

LiaMnGbO2 Chemical Formula 19
wherein 0.90a1.1, and 0.001b0.1.

LiaMn2GbO4 Chemical Formula 20
wherein 0.90a1.1, and 0.001b0.1.

HO2 Chemical Formula 21

HS2 Chemical Formula 22

LiHS2 Chemical Formula 23

V2O5 Chemical Formula 24

LiV2O5 Chemical Formula 25

LilO2 [Chemical Formula 26

LiNiVO4 Chemical Formula 27

Li3fJ2(PO4)3(0f3) Chemical Formula 28

and

Li3fFe2(PO4)3(0f2) Chemical Formula 29
wherein in the above Formulae 5 to 29: A is selected from the group consisting of Ni, Co, Mn, and a combination thereof; B is selected from the group consisting of Al, Ni, Co, Mn, Cr, Fe, Mg, Sr, V, a rare earth element, and a combination thereof; D is selected from the group consisting of O, F, S, P, and a combination thereof; E is selected from the group consisting of Co, Mn, and a combination thereof; F is selected from the group consisting of F, S, P, and a combination thereof; G is selected from the group consisting of Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Mg, La, Ce, Sr, V, a lanthanide element, and a combination thereof, H is selected from the group consisting of Ti, Mo, Mn, and a combination thereof; I is selected from the group consisting of Cr, V, Fe, Sc, Y, and a combination thereof; J is selected from the group consisting of V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and a combination thereof.

LiaE1bBbO2-cFc Chemical Formula 6

LiCo2bO4cFc Chemical Formula 7

LiMn2bO4cFc Chemical Formula 8

LiaNi1bcCObBcDa Chemical Formula 9

LiaNi1bcCObO2FChemical Formula 10

LiaNi1bcCObO2F2 Chemical Formula 11

LiaNi1bcMnbBcDChemical Formula 12

LiaNi1bcMnbO2FChemical Formula 13

LiaNi1bcMnbO2F2 Chemical Formula 14

LiaNibEcGdO2 Chemical Formula 15

LiaNibCocMndGeO2 Chemical Formula 16

LiaNiGbO2 Chemical Formula 17

LiaCoGbO2 Chemical Formula 18

LiaMnGbO2 Chemical Formula 19

LiaMn2GbO4 Chemical Formula 20

HO2 Chemical Formula 21

HS2 Chemical Formula 22

LiHS2 Chemical Formula 23

V2O5 Chemical Formula 24

LiV2O5 Chemical Formula 25

LilO2 [Chemical Formula 26

LiNiVO4 Chemical Formula 27

Li3fJ2(PO4)3(0f3) Chemical Formula 28

and

Li3fFe2(PO4)3(0f2) Chemical Formula 29
20. The rechargeable lithium battery of claim 1, wherein the rechargeable lithium battery is a lithium ion battery or a lithium polymer battery.
21. The rechargeable lithium battery of claim 1, wherein the electrolyte forms a polymer film on the negative electrode when current flows in the rechargeable lithium battery.
22. The rechargeable lithium battery of claim 1, further comprising a polymer film disposed on the negative electrode.
23. The rechargeable lithium battery of claim 22, wherein the polymer film comprises alkylene oxide groups.