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Rational design and synthesis of an orally bioavailable peptide guided by NMR amide temperature coefficients.

Research paper by Conan K CK Wang, Susan E SE Northfield, Barbara B Colless, Stephanie S Chaousis, Ingrid I Hamernig, Rink-Jan RJ Lohman, Daniel S DS Nielsen, Christina I CI Schroeder, Spiros S Liras, David A DA Price, David P DP Fairlie, David J DJ Craik

Indexed on: 25 Nov '14Published on: 25 Nov '14Published in: PNAS



Abstract

Enhancing the oral bioavailability of peptide drug leads is a major challenge in drug design. As such, methods to address this challenge are highly sought after by the pharmaceutical industry. Here, we propose a strategy to identify appropriate amides for N-methylation using temperature coefficients measured by NMR to identify exposed amides in cyclic peptides. N-methylation effectively caps these amides, modifying the overall solvation properties of the peptides and making them more membrane permeable. The approach for identifying sites for N-methylation is a rapid alternative to the elucidation of 3D structures of peptide drug leads, which has been a commonly used structure-guided approach in the past. Five leucine-rich peptide scaffolds are reported with selectively designed N-methylated derivatives. In vitro membrane permeability was assessed by parallel artificial membrane permeability assay and Caco-2 assay. The most promising N-methylated peptide was then tested in vivo. Here we report a novel peptide (15), which displayed an oral bioavailability of 33% in a rat model, thus validating the design approach. We show that this approach can also be used to explain the notable increase in oral bioavailability of a somatostatin analog.