Indexed on: 13 Jan '18Published on: 13 Jan '18Published in: Human molecular genetics
Receptor for Advanced Glycation End products (RAGE) has been implicated in amyloid β-peptide (Aβ)-induced perturbation relevant to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, whether and how RAGE regulates Aβ metabolism remains largely unknown. Aβ formation arises from aberrant cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β- and γ-secretase. To investigate whether RAGE modulates β- and γ-secretase activity potentiating Aβ formation, we generated mAPP mice with genetic deletion of RAGE (mAPP/RO). These mice displayed reduced cerebral amyloid pathology, inhibited aberrant APP-Aβ metabolism by reducing β- and γ-secretases activity, and attenuated impairment of learning and memory compared to mAPP mice. Similarly, RAGE signal transduction deficient mAPP mice (mAPP/DN-RAGE) exhibited the reduction in Aβ40 and Aβ42 production and decreased β-and γ-secretase activity compared to mAPP mice. Furthermore, RAGE-deficient mAPP brain revealed suppression of activation of p38 MAP kinase and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β). Finally, RAGE siRNA-mediated gene silencing or DN-RAGE-mediated signaling deficiency in the enriched human APP neuronal cells demonstrated suppression of activation of GSK3β, accompanied with reduction in Aβ levels and decrease in β- and γ-secretases activity. Our findings highlight that RAGE-dependent signaling pathway regulates β- and γ-secretase cleavage of APP to generate Aβ, at least in part through activation of GSK3β and p38 MAP kinase. RAGE is a potential therapeutic target to limit aberrant APP-Aβ metabolism in halting progression of AD.