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Radiation interactions with biological system.

Research paper by Md Torequl MT Islam

Indexed on: 25 Jan '17Published on: 25 Jan '17Published in: International journal of radiation biology



Abstract

Nowadays, the use of radiation, especially the ionizing radiation (IR) is procuring great attentions in the field of medical sciences. It is to be mentioned that, the IR has both beneficial and harmful effects in biological systems. This study aims to sketch IR-mediated physiological events in a mechanistic way.Evidence from the databases, mainly from PUBMED and SCIENCE DIRECT are considered.IR directly and/or with their lyses products (indirect) cause oxidative stresses to the biological systems. These activities may be localized and systematic. Otherwise, IR-induced non-/multi-targeted effects are also evident. The IR in diagnosis and cancer radiotherapy is well-known. Reactive species produced by IR are not only beneficial, but also can exert harmful effects in a biological system such as aging, genetic instabilization and mutagenicity, membrane lysis and cell death, alteration of enzymatic activity and metabolic events, mitochondrial dysfunction, and even cancer. Additionally, DNA adducts formation, after IR-induced DNA breakage is a cause of blockage of DNA repair capability with an increase in cellular radiosensitivity. These may allow cellular ruin even at low IR levels.Dependent on the dose, duration of action and quality, IR plays diverse roles in biological system.