# Qutrit Dichromatic Calculus and Its Universality

Research paper by Quanlong Wang, Xiaoning Bian

Indexed on: 29 Dec '14Published on: 29 Dec '14Published in: Quantum Physics

#### Abstract

We introduce a dichromatic calculus (RG) for qutrit systems. We show that the decomposition of the qutrit Hadamard gate is non-unique and not derivable from the dichromatic calculus. As an application of the dichromatic calculus, we depict a quantum algorithm with a single qutrit. Since it is not easy to decompose an arbitrary d by d unitary matrix into Z and X phase gates when d > 2, the proof of the universality of qudit ZX calculus for quantum mechanics is far from trivial. We construct a counterexample to Ranchin's universality proof, and give another proof by Lie theory that the qudit ZX calculus contains all single qudit unitary transformations, which implies that qudit ZX calculus, with qutrit dichromatic calculus as a special case, is universal for quantum mechanics.