Indexed on: 18 Nov '20Published on: 15 Nov '20Published in: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
The aim of our study was to evaluate the success of distraction osteogenesis in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis patients with facial deformities at our maxillofacial unit; assess the psychosocial and well-being outcomes of distraction osteogenesis and its impact on oral health; and discriminate the differences in quality of life (QoL) with application of external or internal devices, unilateral or bilateral, linear or multivector, and maxillomandibular or mandibular distraction. QoL and the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) were prospectively studied in 42 consecutive patients with facial deformities, planned for maxillofacial distraction osteogenesis, using 2 validated questionnaires, the Orthognathic Quality of Life Questionnaire and OHIP-14. Patients who had undergone any previous surgeries were excluded. Among these patients, 16 were female, 26 male; mean age was 14.98 ± 4.88 years, and all had prearthroplastic distraction. The shortening in the mandible was in the proportion 29:01:12 in the body, ramus, and ramus-body, respectively. Mean QoL scores before and after distraction were 68.52 ± 9.50 and 26.62 ± 3.51; and mean OHIP scores before and after distraction were 33.88 ± 6.26 and 15.36 ± 2.54, a highly significant difference (P < .001) suggesting improvement. Significant improvement was identified on all QoL and OHIP questions after distraction (P < .01). The postdistraction overall mean QoL score among patients with extraoral or intraoral distractor did not have a significant difference (P = .32), but facial appearance in the bilateral distraction group; jaw function and overall well-being in the multivector distraction group; and facial appearance, jaw function, and overall well-being in maxillomandibular distraction group had significant improvements (P < .05). Distraction osteogenesis considerably improves oral health and health-related QoL in patients with TMJ ankylosis with facial deformities. The use of an external or internal distractor did not make any difference in the QoL; however, bilateral distraction, multivector distraction, and maxillomandibular distraction resulted in better QoL outcomes. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.