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Psychiatric Comorbidities and the Risk of Suicide in Obsessive-Compulsive and Body Dysmorphic Disorder.

Research paper by Noha N Eskander, Therese T Limbana, Farah F Khan

Indexed on: 22 Sep '20Published on: 22 Sep '20Published in: Cureus



Abstract

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic psychiatric disorder that is characterized by obsessions and compulsions. Obsessions are uncontrollable distressful thoughts. Compulsions are recurrent behaviors or thoughts performed in an attempt to decrease the anxiety of the obsessions. Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a mental disorder characterized by a distressful preoccupation with a perceived defect in appearance. The perceived flaw in appearance is minimal or unnoticed by others. BDD was considered an anxiety disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV). In the DSM-V, it was added to the obsessive-compulsive and related disorders category. The objective of this literature review was to explore the psychiatric comorbidities and the risk of suicide associated with OCD and BDD. Our study results showed OCD and BDD share common genetic and environmental risk factors, clinical features, and sociodemographic profiles. Both OCD and BDD are related disorders that commonly coexist. The suicide risk in OCD is increased as the intensity of the obsessions, trait perfectionism, and alexithymia increases. The suicide risk in BDD is increased by the presence of other disorders such as substance use disorder, major depressive disorder, eating and personality disorders. People with comorbid OCD-BDD have high morbidity, a decrease in insight and poor psychosocial functions. They have higher rates of anxiety, schizotypal features, and suicidal ideation compared to those with BDD or OCD alone. Copyright © 2020, Eskander et al.