Indexed on: 05 Mar '15Published on: 05 Mar '15Published in: International journal of molecular medicine
Human skin is the first line of defense for the protection of the internal organs of the body from different stimuli. Ultraviolet B (UVB), one of the harmful radiations for skin, is widely known to induce abnormally increased cytokine release from keratinocytes leading to inflammatory skin disorders. IL-6 and IL-8 induce an acute-phase response and stimulate leukocyte infiltration in the skin. Previous studies have shown that chronic exposure to UVB radiation increases cyclooxygenase-2 (COX‑2) expression through various cell signaling pathways, resulting in skin cancer. Recent studies have shown that the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 MAPK is strongly correlated with acute inflammation and development of skin cancer caused by an increased expression of COX-2. Ixerisoside A (IXA) is an active constituent of Ixeris dentata of the Compositae (Asteraceae) family. The effect of IXA on skin inflammation has yet to be elucidated. To determine the anti-inflammatory effects of IXA, we examined its effect on UVB-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production in human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) by observing these cells in the presence or absence of IXA. In this study, pro-inflammatory cytokine production was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr), and western blot analysis to evaluate the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). IXA inhibited UVB-induced production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, IXA inhibited the expression of COX-2, ERK, JNK, and p38 MAPKs, indicating that the secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8, and COX-2 expression was inhibited by blocking MAPK phosphorylation. These results indicated that IXA potentially protects against UVB-induced skin inflammation.