Indexed on: 20 Dec '18Published on: 20 Dec '18Published in: Frontiers in aging neuroscience
Oxidative stress is one of the main causes of AMD. Hydrogen has anti-oxidative stress and apoptotic effects on retinal injury. However, the effect of hydrogen on AMD is not clear. In this study, fundus radiography, OCT, and FFA demonstrated that HRW reduced the deposition of drusen-like structures in RPE layer, prevented retina from thinning and leakage of ocular fundus vasculature induced by NaIO. ERG analysis confirmed that HRW effectively reversed the decrease of a-wave and b-wave amplitude in NaIO-mice. Mechanistically, HRW greatly reduced the oxidative stress reaction through decreased MDA levels, increased SOD production, and decreased ROS content. The OGG1 expression was downregulated which is a marker of oxidative stress. Involvement of oxidative stress was confirmed using oxidative stress inhibitor ALCAR. Moreover, oxidative stress reaction was associated with expression of Sirt1 level and HRW significantly inhibited the downregulation of Sirt1 expression. This result was further confirmed with AICAR which restore Sirt1 expression and activity. In addition, NaIO-induced retinal damage was related to apoptosis via caspase 8 and caspase 9, but not the caspase 3 pathways, which led to upregulation of Bax and p53, downregulation of Bcl-2, and increase in Jc-1-positive cells in mice. However, HRW effectively reversed these effects that apoptosis induced. These results suggest that HRW protects retinal functions against oxidative stress injury through inhibiting downregulation of Sirt1 and reducing retinal apoptosis. Therefore, we speculated that hydrogen administration is a promising treatment for AMD therapy.