Progressive increase of inflammatory biomarkers in chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease.

Research paper by Korosh K Sharain, Debra D Hoppensteadt, Vinod V Bansal, Ajay A Singh, Jawed J Fareed

Indexed on: 07 Aug '12Published on: 07 Aug '12Published in: Clinical and applied thrombosis/hemostasis : official journal of the International Academy of Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis


Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has reached epidemic levels. It is a multisystem disease associated with elevated systemic inflammatory and hypercoagulable states. Most concerning are the cardiovascular risks associated with all stages of kidney disease. It is difficult to assess kidney disease stage progression and cardiovascular risk with current indicators such as estimated glomerular filtration rate and conventional cardiovascular risk factors. However, the use of biomarkers to assess the underlying pathological disease state may bridge the gap. This study evaluated biomarkers of inflammation including C-reactive protein, d-dimer, neuron-specific enolase, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, tumor necrosis factor receptor I, and thrombomodulin in 3 groups of patients: CKD stages 2-4, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and age-matched controls. The study demonstrated a statistically significant progressive upregulation in mean concentration of all markers when comparing controls to CKD and ESRD. Therefore, biomarkers may be able to evaluate the inflammatory state in kidney disease and potentially predict the cardiovascular risk.