Indexed on: 18 Apr '18Published on: 18 Apr '18Published in: Developmental Neurobiology
Malformations of cortical development (MCD) are a common cause of intractable seizures in humans. Among these, focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) poses an outstanding challenge. There are several subtypes of FCD that show significant variation in pathology and clinical presentation. All types exhibit disturbed cortical cytoarchitecture and increased propensity for seizures. The etiology is likely heterogenous, with mutations, specifically in genes related to mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), identified in only a subset of cases. A more complex mechanism, in which underlying genetic background interacts with early, pre- or perinatal injury or stress, has been proposed. Here, we used a well-established animal model of developmental malformations similar to MCD, induced by prenatal gamma irradiation. Previously, a significant variation between times of treatment has been shown, resulting in distinct and lasting patterns of dysplasia and differentially altered seizure propensity. We set out to describe the molecular background of these patterns by performing microarray analyses of hippocampal samples obtained from adult rats previously irradiated at distinct time points during gestation: E13, E15, E17 or E19 as well as controls. The analysis was performed in three conditions: naïve, during latent phase after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus and after 21 days of transauricular electric shocks. A set of 22 transcripts, some with known functions related to brain development, epilepsy and reaction to injury, was found to be altered between these groups across all treatments. We discuss the functional implication of these molecular differences, in an attempt to provide broader temporal and developmental context. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.