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Primary retroperitoneal myxoid/round cell liposarcoma is a nonexisting disease: an immunohistochemical and molecular biological analysis.

Research paper by Ronald S A RS de Vreeze, Daphne D de Jong, Ivon H G IH Tielen, Henrique J HJ Ruijter, Petra M PM Nederlof, Rick L RL Haas, Frits F van Coevorden

Indexed on: 30 Sep '08Published on: 30 Sep '08Published in: Modern Pathology



Abstract

Almost all primary retroperitoneal liposarcomas can be classified as well-/dedifferentiated liposarcoma. Rarely, however, primary retroperitoneal liposarcoma is classified as myxoid/round cell liposarcoma, based on the presence of myxoid areas and vascular crow's feet pattern, which has resulted in a debate on the classification of liposarcoma in the retroperitoneum. Genetically, myxoid/round cell liposarcoma and well-/dedifferentiated liposarcoma are different diseases. Myxoid/round cell liposarcoma is characterized by a translocation causing FUS-CHOP or EWSR1-CHOP fusion, whereas well-/dedifferentiated liposarcoma is characterized by an amplification of the 12q13-15 region, including MDM2 and CDK4 genes. As myxoid/round cell liposarcoma is highly radio- and chemosensitive, differentiation between subtypes is important to optimize treatment. We studied whether primary retroperitoneal liposarcomas diagnosed as myxoid/round cell liposarcoma represent molecularly true myxoid/round cell liposarcoma or are histopathological mimics and represent well-/dedifferentiated liposarcoma. Primary retroperitoneal myxoid/round cell liposarcoma (n=16) were compared to primary extremity myxoid/round cell liposarcoma (n=20). Histopathological and immunohistochemical features were studied. Amplification status of the 12q13-15 region was studied using a multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis, and FUS-CHOP or EWS-CHOP translocations were studied using RT-PCR. In primary retroperitoneal myxoid/round cell liposarcoma, MDM2 and CDK4 staining was both positive in 12 of 15 cases. In primary extremity myxoid/round cell liposarcoma, MDM2 was negative in 18/20 and CDK4 was negative in all cases. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification showed the amplification of 12q13-15 region in 16/16 primary retroperitoneal myxoid/round cell liposarcomas and in 1/20 primary extremity myxoid/round cell liposarcomas. Translocation was present in all (18/18) primary extremity myxoid/round cell liposarcomas, but absent in all primary retroperitoneal myxoid/round cell liposarcomas. On the basis of immunohistochemical and molecular characteristics, apparent primary retroperitoneal myxoid/round cell liposarcoma can be recognized as well-/dedifferentiated liposarcoma with morphological features mimicking myxoid/round cell liposarcoma. In these cases, treatment should probably be specifically designed as for well-/dedifferentiated liposarcoma. Moreover, finding of myxoid/round cell liposarcoma translocations in a retroperitoneal localization is highly suggestive of metastasis and should prompt search for a primary localization outside the retroperitoneum.