Indexed on: 20 Dec '18Published on: 20 Dec '18Published in: Immunological Reviews
Periodontitis is a common human inflammatory disease. In this condition, microbiota trigger excessive inflammation in oral mucosal tissues surrounding the dentition, resulting in destruction of tooth-supporting structures (connective tissue and bone). While susceptibility factors for common forms of periodontitis are not clearly understood, studies in patients with single genetic defects reveal a critical role for tissue neutrophils in disease susceptibility. Indeed, various genetic defects in the development, egress from the bone marrow, chemotaxis, and extravasation are clearly linked to aggressive/severe periodontitis at an early age. Here, we provide an overview of genetic defects in neutrophil biology that are linked to periodontitis. In particular, we focus on the mechanisms underlying Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency-I, the prototypic Mendelian defect of impaired neutrophil extravasation and severe periodontitis. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.