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Prevalence and Relationship Between Maternal Periodontal Disease and Preterm Low Birth Weight Baby

Research paper by Prabha Kumari, Sumanlata Mendiratta, Subodh Sharma, Sangeeta Popli

Indexed on: 11 Jun '16Published on: 08 Jun '16Published in: Journal of Fetal Medicine



Abstract

The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence and relationship between maternal periodontal disease and preterm low birth weight (LBW) babies among women delivering at Hindu Rao Hospital, Delhi, India. A case control study was performed on 150 women fulfilling the selection criteria over a period of one year. The study consisted of 50 cases, (women delivering preterm babies weighing ≤2.5 kg, Group I) and 100 controls (women delivering babies at ≥37 weeks and weighing >2.5 kg, Group II). Associated risk factors for preterm low birth weight (PT-LBW) were ascertained by means of a structured questionnaire and maternal notes. Women having any of the possible risk factors for preterm LBW were either excluded or confounded in the study. The prevalence of periodontal disease was assessed by the community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN) scoring method, with scores ranging from 0 to 4. Data were analyzed using Graphpad Prism-5 software. P value and odds ratio (OR) with 95 % confidence interval were calculated as and when required for statistical analysis. Prevalence of periodontal disease was 84.66 % (n = 150) in the study population. Prevalence of periodontal disease was high, at least in some form or other, in cases (100 %) as compared to controls (77 %). The prevalence of severe periodontal disease (CPITN score-4) was 8 % in cases and 3 % in controls. Periodontal disease is an avoidable risk factor for LBW as almost all of the known risk factors for LBW were either excluded or confounded during the study. Hence, routine periodontal examination and advice on good oral hygiene should be included as part of preconceptional care and antenatal checkups during pregnancy. Any dysfunction should be thoroughly investigated and treated for the sake of health of both mother and baby.