Indexed on: 17 May '18Published on: 17 May '18Published in: Scientific Reports
Baseline plasma samples of 490 randomly selected antiretroviral therapy (ART) naïve patients from seven hospitals participating in the first nationwide Ethiopian HIV-1 cohort were analysed for surveillance drug resistance mutations (sDRM) by population based Sanger sequencing (PBSS). Also next generation sequencing (NGS) was used in a subset of 109 baseline samples of patients. Treatment outcome after 6- and 12-months was assessed by on-treatment (OT) and intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses. Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) was detected in 3.9% (18/461) of successfully sequenced samples by PBSS. However, NGS detected sDRM more often (24%; 26/109) than PBSS (6%; 7/109) (p = 0.0001) and major integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTI) DRMs were also found in minor viral variants from five patients. Patients with sDRM had more frequent treatment failure in both OT and ITT analyses. The high rate of TDR by NGS and the identification of preexisting INSTI DRMs in minor wild-type HIV-1 subtype C viral variants infected Ethiopian patients underscores the importance of TDR surveillance in low- and middle-income countries and shows added value of high-throughput NGS in such studies.