Indexed on: 21 May '21Published on: 21 May '21Published in: PloS one
This study provides detailed characteristics of vector populations in preparation for a three-arm cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) aiming to compare the community impact of dual active-ingredient (AI) long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) that combine two novel insecticide classes-chlorfenapyr or pyriproxifen-with alpha-cypermethrin to improve the prevention of malaria transmitted by insecticide-resistant vectors compared to standard pyrethroid LLINs. The study was carried out in 60 villages across Cove, Zangnanando and Ouinhi districts, southern Benin. Mosquito collections were performed using human landing catches (HLCs). After morphological identification, a sub-sample of Anopheles gambiae s.l. were dissected for parity, analyzed by PCR for species and presence of L1014F kdr mutation and by ELISA-CSP to identify Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite infection. WHO susceptibility tube tests were performed by exposing adult An. gambiae s.l., collected as larvae from each district, to 0.05% alphacypermethrin, 0.75% permethrin, 0.1% bendiocarb and 0.25% pirimiphos-methyl. Synergist assays were also conducted with exposure first to 4% PBO followed by alpha-cypermethrin. An. gambiae s.l. (n = 10807) was the main malaria vector complex found followed by Anopheles funestus s.l. (n = 397) and Anopheles nili (n = 82). An. gambiae s.l. was comprised of An. coluzzii (53.9%) and An. gambiae s.s. (46.1%), both displaying a frequency of the L1014F kdr mutation >80%. Although more than 80% of people slept under standard LLIN, human biting rate (HBR) in An. gambiae s.l. was higher indoors [26.5 bite/person/night (95% CI: 25.2-27.9)] than outdoors [18.5 b/p/n (95% CI: 17.4-19.6)], as were the trends for sporozoite rate (SR) [2.9% (95% CI: 1.7-4.8) vs 1.8% (95% CI: 0.6-3.8)] and entomological inoculation rate (EIR) [21.6 infected bites/person/month (95% CI: 20.4-22.8) vs 5.4 (95% CI: 4.8-6.0)]. Parous rate was 81.6% (95%CI: 75.4-88.4). An. gambiae s.l. was resistant to alpha-cypermethrin and permethrin but, fully susceptible to bendiocarb and pirimiphos-methyl. PBO pre-exposure followed by alpha-cypermethrin treatment induced a higher 24 hours mortality compared to alphacypermethrin alone but not exceeding 40%. Despite a high usage of standard pyrethroid LLINs, the study area is characterized by intense malaria transmission. The main vectors An. coluzzii and An. gambiae s.s. were both highly resistant to pyrethroids and displayed multiple resistance mechanisms, L1014F kdr mutation and mixed function oxidases. These conditions of the study area make it an appropriate site to conduct the trial that aims to assess the effect of novel dual-AI LLINs on malaria transmitted by insecticide-resistant vectors.