Indexed on: 27 Dec '17Published on: 27 Dec '17Published in: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Dosing recommendations for continuous infusion of piperacillin, a broad-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic, are mainly guided by outputs from population pharmacokinetic models constructed with intermittent infusion data. However, the probability of target attainment in patients receiving piperacillin by continuous infusion may be overestimated when drug clearance estimates from population pharmacokinetic models based on intermittent infusion data are used, especially when higher doses (e.g. 16g/24h or more) are simulated. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to describe the population pharmacokinetics of piperacillin when infused continuously in critically ill patients. For this analysis, 270 plasma samples from 110 critically ill patients receiving piperacillin were available for population pharmacokinetic model building. A one-compartment model with linear clearance best described the concentration-time data. The mean ± SD parameter estimates were 8.38 ± 9.91 L/h for drug clearance and 25.54 ± 3.65 L for volume of distribution. Creatinine clearance improved the model fit and was supported for inclusion as a covariate. In critically ill patients with a renal clearance higher than 90 mL/min/1.73m2, a high-dose continuous infusion of 24g/24h is insufficient to achieve adequate exposure (pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic target of 100% fT>4 x MIC) against susceptible P. aerginosa isolates (MIC ≤ 16mg/L). These findings suggest that merely increasing the dose of piperacillin, even with continuous infusion, may not always result in adequate piperacillin exposure. This should be confirmed by evaluating piperacillin target attainment rates in critically ill patients exhibiting high renal clearance.