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Population Pharmacokinetic Model for Vancomycin Used in Open Heart Surgery: Model-Based Evaluation of Standard Dosing Regimens.

Research paper by Saeed A SA Alqahtani, Abdullah S AS Alsultan, Hussain M HM Alqattan, Ahmed A Eldemerdash, Turki B TB Albacker

Indexed on: 25 Apr '18Published on: 25 Apr '18Published in: Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy



Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate the population pharmacokinetics of vancomycin in patients undergoing open heart surgery. In this observational pharmacokinetic study, multiple blood samples were drawn over a 48-h period of intravenous vancomycin in patients who were undergoing open heart surgery. Blood samples were analysed using the Architect i4000SR Immunoassay Analyzer. Population pharmacokinetic models were developed using Monolix 4.4 software. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) simulations were performed to explore the ability of different dosage regimens to achieve the pharmacodynamic targets. One-hundred and sixty-eight blood samples were analysed from 28 patients. The pharmacokinetics of vancomycin was best described by a two-compartment model with between-subject variability in CL, V of the central compartment, and V of the peripheral compartment. CL and central compartment V of vancomycin were related to CL, body weight, and albumin concentration. Dosing simulations showed that standard dosing regimens of 1 and 1.5 g failed to achieve the PK-PD target of AUC/MIC > 400 for an MIC of 1 mg/L, while high weight-based dosing regimens were able to achieve the PK-PD target. In summary, administration of standard doses of 1 and 1.5 g of vancomycin two times daily provided inadequate antibiotic prophylaxis in patients undergoing open heart surgery. The same findings were obtained when 15 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg doses of vancomycin were administered. Achieving the PK-PD target required higher doses (25 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg) of vancomycin. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.