Indexed on: 13 Oct '06Published on: 13 Oct '06Published in: Photosynthesis Research
Methionine oxidation to methionine sulfoxide (MetSo), which results in modification of activity and conformation for many proteins, is reversed by an enzyme present in most organisms and termed as methionine sulfoxide reductase (MSR). On the basis of substrate stereospecificity, two types of MSR, A and B, that do not share any sequence similarity, have been identified. In the present review, we first compare the multigenic MSR families in the three plant species for which the genome is fully sequenced: Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, and Populus trichocarpa. The MSR gene content is larger in A. thaliana (five MSRAs and nine MSRBs) compared to P. trichocarpa (five MSRAs and four MSRBs) and O. sativa (four MSRAs and three MSRBs). A complete classification based on gene structure, sequence identity, position of conserved reactive cysteines and predicted subcellular localization is proposed. On the basis of in silico and experimental data originating mainly from Arabidopsis, we report that some MSR genes display organ-specific expression patterns and that those encoding plastidic MSRs are highly expressed in photosynthetic organs. We also show that the expression of numerous MSR genes is enhanced by environmental conditions known to generate oxidative stress. Thioredoxins (TRXs) constitute very likely physiological electron donors to plant MSR proteins for the catalysis of MetSO reduction, but the specificity between the numerous TRXs and methionine sulfoxide reductases (MSRs) present in plants remains to be investigated. The essential role of plant MSRs in protection against oxidative damage has been recently demonstrated on transgenic Arabidopsis plants modified in the content of cytosolic or plastidic MSRA.
Indexed on: 31 Oct '09
Published on: 31 Oct '09 in The Plant Journal