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Phytotoxicity assessment of isoproturon on growth and physiology of non-targeted aquatic plant Lemna minor L. - A comparison of continuous and pulsed exposure with equivalent time-averaged concentrations.

Research paper by Martina M Varga, Janja J Horvatić, Paula P Žurga, Iva I Brusić, Marko M Moslavac

Indexed on: 28 Feb '20Published on: 21 Jun '19Published in: Aquatic Toxicology



Abstract

Phenylurea herbicides are often present in the aquatic ecosystems and may be accumulated by the non-targeted organisms and impose a negative effect on the organism and the community. This study aims to investigate and compare the effects of two different isoproturon (IPU) pulse exposure scenarios on the non-targeted aquatic plant Lemna minor with effects observed in the standard test with continuous exposure. The obtained results showed that continuous IPU treatment causes significant reduction of photosynthetic pigment concentration and proteins as well as inhibition of L. minor growth. The activities of CAT, G-POX, and APX were significantly induced to diminish the accumulation of ROS under IPU treatment, but the induction of antioxidant enzymes was not sufficient to protect the plants from herbicide-induced oxidative stress. The growth of L. minor under pulse exposure to IPU recovers fast, but pulse treatment results in significant physiological changes in treated plants. The accumulation of HO and lipid peroxidation products, alongside the reduced concentration of proteins and photosynthetic pigments in pulse treatment after a recovery period, indicates that IPU causes prolonged oxidative stress in L. minor plants. The recovery potential of L. minor plants after treatment with herbicides may have an important role in maintaining the population of essential primary producers in aquatic ecosystems, but IPU-induced physiological changes could potentially have a significant role in modulating the response of the plants to the next exposure event. Copyright © 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.