Indexed on: 22 Apr '05Published on: 22 Apr '05Published in: Biological chemistry
Oxidative stress is linked to the pathogenesis and pathobiochemistry of various diseases, including cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. The non-specific damaging effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during oxidative stress is involved in the development of diseases, as well as the activation of specific signaling cascades in cells exposed to the higher oxidant load. A cellular signaling cascade that is activated by several types of reactive oxygen species is the phosphoinositide 3'-kinase (PI 3-kinase)/protein kinase B (PKB) pathway, which regulates cellular survival and fuel metabolism, thus establishing a link between oxidative stress and signaling in neoplastic, metabolic or degenerative diseases. Several links of PI 3-kinase/PKB signaling to ROS are discussed in this review, with particular focus on the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of PI 3-kinase signaling by oxidative stress and important players such as (i) the glutathione and glutaredoxin system, (ii) the thioredoxin system and (iii) Ser/Thr- and Tyr phosphatases.