Petrology and geochemistry of Jura granite and granite gneiss in the Neelum Valley, Lesser Himalayas (Kashmir, Pakistan)

Research paper by Muhammad Saleem Mughal, Muhammad Sabir Khan, Muhammad Rustam Khan, Sohail Mustafa, Fahad Hameed, Muhammad Basharat, Abrar Niaz

Indexed on: 26 Jun '16Published on: 23 Jun '16Published in: Arabian Journal of Geosciences


Late Proterozoic rocks of Tanol Formation in the Lesser Himalayas of Neelum Valley area are largely green schist to amphibolite facies rocks intruded by early Cambrian Jura granite gneiss and Jura granite representing Pan-African orogeny event in the area. These rocks are further intruded by pegmatites of acidic composition, aplites, and dolerite dykes. Based on field observations, texture, and petrographic character, three different categories of granite gneiss (i.e., highly porphyritic, coarse-grained two micas granite gneiss, medium-grained two micas granite gneiss, and leucocratic tourmaline-bearing muscovite granite gneiss), and granites (i.e., highly porphyritic coarse-grained two micas granite, medium-grained two micas granite, and leucocratic tourmaline-bearing coarse-grained muscovite granite) were classified. Thin section studies show that granite gneiss and granite are formed due to fractional crystallization, as revealed by zoning in plagioclase. The Al saturation index indicates that granite gneiss and granite are strongly peraluminous and S-type. Geochemical analysis shows that all granite gneisses are magnesian except one which is ferroan whereas all granites are ferroan except one which is magnesian. The CaO/Na2O ratio (>0.3) indicates that granitic melt of Jura granite gneiss and granite is pelite-psammite derived peraluminous granitic melt formed due to partial melting of Tanol Formation. The rare earth element (REE) patterns of the Jura granite and Jura granite gneiss indicate that granitic magma of Jura granite and Jura granite gneiss is formed due to partial melting of rocks that are similar in composition to that of upper continental crust.