Indexed on: 04 May '04Published on: 04 May '04Published in: Mutation Research - Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis
Cancers induced by different carcinogens show distinct expression profiles. In addition to the specific alterations of tumor-related genes induced by specific carcinogens, it is possible that some initial responses induced by a carcinogen could persist for long periods and are consistently present in the cancers induced. We have analyzed the initial responses in the rat pyloric mucosae after treatment for 2 weeks with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). Gene expression was monitored 1 day, 2 weeks and 4 weeks after MNNG treatment by oligonucleotide microarray analysis. Of the differentially expressed genes showing greater than three-fold difference 1 day after MNNG treatment, 143 and 26 genes were up- and down-regulated, respectively, in MNNG-induced stomach cancers. Among these genes, 25 and 6 genes were up- and down-regulated, respectively, in the histologically normal pyloric mucosae, even 4 weeks after cessation of MNNG treatment. Among the up-regulated genes, many genes involved in tissue remodeling (Spi15, Serpine1 and Fst) and cellular growth (Bdnf, Ros1 and Fgf10) were present. The six down-regulated genes included TGF-beta-inducible early growth response gene. These findings demonstrate that some expression changes induced by MNNG persist for a prolonged period and are present in cancers. Persistent expression changes are considered to be important for prediction of past carcinogen exposure, and could provide a molecular environment favorable for malignant transformation.