Indexed on: 19 Nov '11Published on: 19 Nov '11Published in: International journal of critical illness and injury science
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public health problem and the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Despite the modern diagnosis and treatment, the prognosis for patients with TBI remains poor. While severity of primary injury is the major factor determining the outcomes, the secondary injury caused by physiological insults such as hypotension, hypoxemia, hypercarbia, hypocarbia, hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia, etc. that develop over time after the onset of the initial injury, causes further damage to brain tissue, worsening the outcome in TBI. Perioperative period may be particularly important in the course of TBI management. While surgery and anesthesia may predispose the patients to new onset secondary injuries which may contribute adversely to outcomes, the perioperative period is also an opportunity to detect and correct the undiagnosed pre-existing secondary insults, to prevent against new secondary insults and is a potential window to initiate interventions that may improve outcome of TBI. For this review, extensive Pubmed and Medline search on various aspects of perioperative management of TBI was performed, followed by review of research focusing on intraoperative and perioperative period. While the research focusing specifically on the intraoperative and immediate perioperative TBI management is limited, clinical management continues to be based largely on physiological optimization and recommendations of Brain Trauma Foundation guidelines. This review is focused on the perioperative management of TBI, with particular emphasis on recent developments.