Indexed on: 09 Nov '06Published on: 09 Nov '06Published in: Artificial cells, blood substitutes, and immobilization biotechnology
The basic properties of perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and PFC emulsions relevant to their use as oxygen delivery systems are briefly reviewed. The key issues related to the selection of an appropriate, readily excretable PFC and the engineering of a stable injectable PFC emulsion are discussed. Oxygent, a terminally heat-sterilized, injectable 60% w/v PFC emulsion made primarily of F-octyl bromide and a few percent of F-decyl bromide, with egg phospholipids as an emulsifier, has been developed. Its efficacy in avoiding and reducing red cell transfusion during surgery has been established during a Phase III clinical evaluation. Another Phase III clinical trial in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery, with a protocol that included both augmented-acute normovolemic hemodilution and intraoperative autologous donation, has, however, been interrupted following the observation of adverse events. Data analysis assigned these events to an inappropriate study protocol. A search for possible interactions between Oxygent and fluids present during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery detected no effect of the emulsion on hemostasis, hemolysis and blood rheology.