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Pelvic-Spinal Analysis and the Impact of Onabotulinum toxin A Injections on Spinal Balance in one Child With Cerebral Palsy

Research paper by Chaleat-Valayer, E, Bernard, J.-C, Deceuninck, J, Roussouly, P.

Indexed on: 29 Nov '16Published on: 17 Nov '16Published in: Child Neurology Open



Abstract

Background: In children with cerebral palsy, primary (eg, abnormal muscle tone and weakness) and secondary impairments (eg, contractures) can modify pelvic-spinal alignment. The main aim of this article was to establish a new approach to pelvic-spinal analysis in children with cerebral palsy, taking into account the whole pelvis-spine complex, illustrated by a case study. Methods: This is a case study of an ambulatory child with cerebral palsy (spastic diplegia) who underwent analysis of the pelvic-spine complex from X-ray images taken in standing position from C2 to the proximal femur. Pelvic shape was characterized by the pelvic incidence angle, which is the sum of sacral slope and pelvic tilt, before and after the treatment by regular onabotulinumtoxinA injections into the hip flexors, and the use of soft lumbar brace over 5 years. Results: The sagittal balance of the spine was improved following the treatment, with a reduction in lumbar lordosis and sacral slope. The reduction in lumbar hyperextension likely reduced the risk of spondylolysis, low back pain, and degenerative spondylolisthesis in adulthood. Conclusion: A biomechanical approach to the evaluation of the pelvic-spinal complex offers new perspectives to increase the understanding of spinal balance in children with cerebral palsy, providing more options for treatment, such as onabotulinumtoxinA.