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Pediatric Oncologic Emergencies: A Clinical and Imaging Review for pediatricians.

Research paper by Atsuhiko A Handa, Taiki T Nozaki, Akari A Makidono, Tetsuhiko T Okabe, Yuka Y Morita, Kazutoshi K Fujita, Masaki M Matsusako, Tatsuo T Kono, Yasuyuki Y Kurihara, Daisuke D Hasegawa, Tadashi T Kumamoto, Chitose C Ogawa, Yuza Y Yuki, Atsushi A Manabe

Indexed on: 20 Dec '18Published on: 20 Dec '18Published in: Pediatrics International



Abstract

Children with cancer are at increased risk of life-threatening emergencies, either from cancer itself or related to cancer treatment. These conditions need to be assessed and treated as early as possible to minimize their morbidity and mortality. Cardiothoracic emergencies encompass a variety of pathologies, including pericardial effusions and cardiac tamponade, massive hemoptysis, superior vena cava syndrome, pulmonary embolism, and pneumonia. Abdominal emergencies include bowel obstruction, intussusception, perforation, tumor rupture, intestinal graft-versus-host disease, acute pancreatitis, neutropenic colitis, and obstructive uropathy. Radiological imaging plays a vital role in the diagnosis of these emergencies. We here review the clinical features and imaging findings in pediatric patients with oncologic emergencies, including a review of recently published studies. Key radiological images are presented to highlight the radiological approach to the diagnosis. Pediatricians, pediatric surgeons, and pediatric radiologists need to work together to arrive at the correct diagnosis and to ensure prompt and appropriate treatment strategies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.