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Pattern of presentation of Type 1 diabetic patients in Kano, Nigeria

Research paper by Umar Isa Umar

Indexed on: 03 Aug '16Published on: 01 Aug '16Published in: Nigerian Journal of Basic and Clinical Sciences



Abstract

Umar Isa Umar Nigerian Journal of Basic and Clinical Sciences 2016 13(2):85-88 Background: Type 1 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes in children; its symptoms may be subtle and frequently misinterpreted. Presentation with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) may be associated with significant morbidity and mortality in the paediatric population. Objective: To examine the prevalence of Type 1 diabetes in children at the Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano. Design: Retrospective study of case files of children with diagnosis of Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Patients and Methods: It was a retrospective review of case files of children younger than 18 years with diagnosis of T1DM over 4 years (January 1, 2012,–December 31, 2015). Results: A total of 7929 patients were seen during the study period, out of which 18 were diagnosed with T1DM, giving a case prevalence rate of 2.3/1000. Sixteen (89%) of the 18 patients were first presented with DKA. The mean age at presentation was 8 years, and there were more females 13/18 than males 5/18 among the subjects. The most prevalent presenting symptoms were dehydration 16 (89%), fever 14 (77.8), abdominal pain 12 (66.6%), polyuria and polydipsia 12 (66.6%). Two of the sixteen patients with DKA died with cerebral oedema during admission. Conclusion: DKA is the most common pattern of presentation of T1DM in our environment. This highlights the need for intensified efforts in education of health workers and the populace at large for quick presentation and prompt diagnosis and optimal management of childhood diabetes.