Indexed on: 22 Jul '18Published on: 22 Jul '18Published in: The British journal of radiology
Hybrid surgical methods such as remote endarterectomy and endovascular revascularization are fluoroscopy-guided procedures successfully replacing conventional open surgery for treatment of peripheral artery disease (PAD). The aim of this study was to: (1) evaluate the dose parameters describing exposure of patients undergoing endovascular or hybrid revascularization of the lower limb (below the inguinal ligament); (2) compare the data available in the literature with the evaluations of patients' dose values and related factors for patients undergoing such procedures; (3) examine the correlation of doses with certain parameters; (4) estimate the peak skin dose and assess the potential for radiation induced skin injuries during the procedures. Data for 259 patients were extracted retrospectively and analysed. The procedures were grouped by type of intervention, vascular approach and level of complexity. The analyses included the correlation of dose values with the operating team. The KAP and FT values greatly varied depending on the procedure type but also among patients undergoing the same procedure. The type of vascular access has the largest impact on patients' doses. The KAP and FT values for brachial artery were: 347 Gy.cm and FT: NA; for contralateral CFA approach: 207 Gy.cm and 153 s; e.g. significantly higher than for ipsilateral CFA: 96 Gy.cm and 78 s; for hybrid surgery: 77 Gy.cm and 41 s and for ipsilateral retrograde popliteal approach: 61 Gy.cm and 53 s. The same tendency is observed for the PSD values: the highest are for brachial artery (2053 mGy) and contralateral CFA (1325 mGy) approach, followed by the ipsilateral CFA (748 mGy), hybrid surgery (649 mGy) and ipsilateral retrograde popliteal approach (566 mGy). Registered dose values and fluoroscopy time for the different procedures do not exceed the IAEA proposed trigger values for patients' follow-up for radiation induced skin injuries. The type of vascular access has the highest negative impact on radiation dose levels and resultant KAP, PSD and FT values. There is a significant increase of the dose values with increase of the number of inserted stents and the level of complexity. This should be considered in planning, especially for patients who undergo multiple diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Advances in knowledge: This study gives a systematic understanding for patient radiation exposure in endovascular and hybrid revascularization of the lower extremities, thus far absent in the literature.