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Paging in heterogeneous networks using restricted subframe patterns

Imported: 13 Feb '17 | Published: 11 Oct '16

USPTO - Utility Patents

Abstract

A method for operating a UE in a wireless communications network is provided. The method comprises using, by the UE, a frequency parameter of paging frames and a restricted subframe pattern to determine one or more paging frames and occasions to monitor.

Description

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 14/537,278 filed Nov. 10, 2014 by Takashi Suzuki entitled, “Paging in Heterogeneous Networks Using Restricted Subframe Patterns” which is a continuation of U.S. Pat. No. 8,885,509 issued on Nov. 11, 2014 entitled, “Paging in Heterogeneous Networks Using Restricted Subframe Patterns”, which claims priority to U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61/556,087, filed Nov. 4, 2011 by Takashi Suzuki entitled, “Paging in Heterogeneous Networks Using Restricted Subframe Patterns”, all of which are incorporated by reference herein as if reproduced in their entirety.

BACKGROUND

As telecommunications technology has evolved, more advanced network access equipment has been introduced that can provide services that were not possible previously. This network access equipment might include systems and devices that are improvements of the equivalent equipment in a traditional wireless telecommunications system. Such advanced network access equipment may be included in evolving wireless communications standards, such as long-term evolution (LTE). For example, in an LTE system the advanced network access equipment might include an Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN) node B (eNB). In various wireless communications systems, the advanced network access equipment may include a base station a wireless access point, or a similar component operable as an access node according to a corresponding wireless communications standard. Any such component will be referred to herein as an eNB, but it should be understood that such a component is not necessarily an eNB. Such a component may also be referred to herein as an access node or base station.

LTE may be said to correspond to Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Release 8 (Rel-8 or R8), Release 9 (Rel-9 or R9), and Release 10 (Rel-10 or R10), and possibly also to releases beyond Release 10, while LTE Advanced (LTE-A) may be said to correspond to Release 10 and possibly also to releases beyond Release 10. While the present disclosure is described in relation to an LTE-A system, the concepts are equally applicable to other wireless communications systems as well.

As used herein, the term “user equipment” (alternatively “UE”) refers to equipment that communicates with an access node to obtain services via the wireless communications system. A UE might in some cases refer to mobile devices such as mobile telephones, personal digital assistants, handheld or laptop computers, and similar devices that have telecommunications capabilities. Such a UE might include a device and its associated removable memory module, such as but not limited to a Universal Integrated Circuit Card (UICC) that includes a Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) application, a Universal Subscriber Identity Module (USIM) application, or a Removable User Identity Module (R-UIM) application. Alternatively, such a UE might include the device itself without such a module. In other cases, the term “UE” might refer to devices that have similar capabilities but that are not transportable, such as desktop computers, set-top boxes, or network appliances. The term “UE” can also refer to any hardware or software component that can terminate a communication session for a user. Also, the terms “user equipment,” “UE,” “user agent,” “UA,” “user device,” and “mobile device” might be used synonymously herein.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

In wireless telecommunications systems, transmission equipment in an access node transmits signals throughout a geographical region referred to as a cell. One type of access node, such as an eNB, may be associated with a macro cell. Another type of access node, such as a low power node (e.g., femto cells, relays, or pico cells), may be associated with a low power cell. A heterogeneous network (HetNet) is a network that can include macro cells and low-power cells. For example, a HetNet may include a system of macro cells that operate at high power levels, and a system of low power cells, such as pico cells and relay nodes, which operate at reduced power levels. The low power cells can be overlaid on top of the macro cells, possibly sharing the same frequency. The low power cells may be used to offload the macro cells, improve coverage, and/or increase network performance. 3GPP has studied HetNet deployments as a performance enhancement enabler in LTE-Advanced (Release 10). In HetNet deployments, inter-cell interference coordination (ICIC) can prevent interference between the signals transmitted by the macro cell and the low-power nodes. Time domain-based resource sharing or coordination has been adopted as enhanced ICIC (eICIC). As described in 3GPP Technical Specification (TS) 36.300, the deployment scenarios where eICIC is utilized may include a closed subscriber group (CSG) (also referred to as femto cell) scenario and a pico cell scenario.

In the CSG scenario, a dominant interference condition may occur when non-member users are in close proximity to a CSG cell. Typically, the Physical Downlink Control Channel (PDCCH) might be severely interfered with by downlink transmissions from a non-member CSG cell. Interference to the PDCCH of the macro cell can have a detrimental impact on both uplink and downlink data transfer between the UE and the macro cell. In addition, other downlink control channels and reference signals, from both the macro cell and the neighbor cells, that may be used for cell measurements and radio link monitoring can also be interfered with by a downlink transmission from a non-member CSG cell. Depending on network deployment and strategy, it may not be possible to divert the users suffering from inter-cell interference to another E-UTRA (Evolved UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) Terrestrial Radio Access) carrier or another radio access technology (RAT). Time domain ICIC may be used to allow such non-member UEs to remain served by the macro cell on the same frequency layer. Such interference may be mitigated by the CSG cell utilizing Almost Blank Subframes (ABSs) to protect the corresponding macro cell's subframes from the interference. ABSs are subframes with reduced transmit power and/or reduced activity (possibly including no transmission) on some physical channels. A non-member UE may be signaled to utilize the protected resources for radio resource management (RRM) measurements, radio link monitoring (RLM) and channel state information (CSI) measurements for the serving macro cell, allowing the UE to continue to be served by the macro cell under strong interference from the CSG cell.

An example of the CSG scenario is shown in FIG. 1. Since a UE 110 that is not a member of a CSG is within the coverage area of the CSG cell 120, signals from the CSG cell 120 could interfere with signals sent to the UE 110 from a macro cell 130.

In the pico scenario, time domain ICIC may be utilized for pico users that are served in the edge of the serving pico cell, e.g., for traffic off-loading from a macro cell to a pico cell. Typically, the PDCCH might be severely interfered with by downlink transmission from the macro cell. In addition, other downlink control channels and reference signals, from both the pico cell and neighbor pico cells, that may be used for cell measurements and radio link monitoring can also be interfered with by a downlink transmission from the macro cell. Time domain ICIC may be utilized to allow such UEs to remain served by the pico cell on the same frequency layer. Such interference may be mitigated by the macro cell utilizing ABSs to protect the corresponding pico cell's subframes from the interference. A UE served by a pico cell can use the protected resources for RRM, RLM, and CSI measurements for the serving pico cell.

An example of the pico scenario is shown in FIG. 2. A UE 210 that is at the edge of the coverage area of a pico cell 220 might be close enough to a macro cell 230 that signals from the macro cell 230 could interfere with signals sent to the UE 110 from the pico cell 220.

For time domain ICIC, subframe utilization across different cells can be coordinated in time through backhaul signaling or configuration of patterns in the ABS. The ABSs in an aggressor cell can be used to protect resources in subframes in a victim cell receiving strong inter-cell interference. The ABS pattern is used to identify subframes (referred to as “restricted” subframes or “protected” subframes) during which the aggressor cell transmits an almost blank subframe. The restricted subframes provide an opportunity to measure transmissions from the victim cell more accurately because there should be less or no interference from the aggressor cell.

The serving eNB can ensure backwards compatibility toward UEs by transmitting necessary control channels and physical signals as well as system information during the restricted subframes. Patterns based on ABSs can be signaled to the UE to cause the UE to restrict measurements to specific subframes. These restrictions may be time domain measurement resource restrictions. There are different patterns depending on the type of measured cell (serving or neighbor cell) and measurement type (e.g., RRM or RLM).

An example of an ABS pattern for the pico scenario is shown in FIG. 3. In this example, a macro eNB 310 (the aggressor) configures and transfers the ABS patterns to a pico eNB 320 (the victim). To protect the UEs served by the pico eNB 320 in the edge of the pico cell, the macro eNB 310 does not schedule data transmissions in ABS subframes. The pico eNB 320 may rely upon the ABS pattern to schedule transmissions to various UEs in the restricted subframes. For example, the pico eNB 320 may schedule transmissions to and from a first UE regardless of the ABS patterns, such as when the first UE is in the cell center. Alternatively, the pico eNB 320 may schedule transmissions to and from a second UE only in the restricted subframes indicated by the ABS pattern, such as when the second UE is near the cell edge.

In other words, the pico layer subframes 330 that occur at substantially the same time as the macro layer subframes 340 may be said to be aligned with those macro layer subframes 340. In subframes 340 where the macro eNB 310 is active, the pico eNB 320, in subframes 330, schedules only those UEs without excessive range extension. During pico layer subframes 350 that are aligned with almost blank macro eNB subframes 360, the pico eNB 320 can also schedule UEs that have large range extension offsets and that would otherwise not be schedulable due to too much interference from the macro layer 310.

The pico cell eNB may configure a UE at the edge of the cell with three different measurement resource restrictions independently based on an ABS pattern received from the macro cell eNB. The first restriction is for RRM measurement and RLM for the Primary cell, that is, PCell (in this case the serving pico cell). If configured, the UE measures and performs RLM of the PCell only in the restricted subframes. The second restriction is for RRM measurement of neighbor cells on the primary frequency. If configured, the UE measures neighbor cells in the restricted subframes only. The restriction also contains target neighbor cells optionally. The third restriction is for channel state estimation of the PCell. If configured, the UE estimates CSI and CQI/PMI/RI in the restricted subframes only.

The subframe pattern for the measurement restrictions in the RRC protocol in version 10.3.0 of 3GPP TS 36.331 is defined as shown in Text Box 1 at the end of the Detailed Description section of this document. In frequency division duplexing (FDD), the pattern is repetition of 40 subframes and in TDD the pattern is repetition of 20, 60 and 70 subframes depending on the configuration.

Sections 5.2.1.3 to 5.2.1.5 of version 10.3.0 of the RRC specification (3GPP TS 36.331) explain how paging is used to notify the UE of a change in system information and/or the arrival of Earthquake and Tsunami Warning System (ETWS) messages or Commercial Mobile Alert Service (CMAS) messages. These sections of 3GPP TS 36.331 are reproduced as Text Box 2 at the end of the Detailed Description section of this document. When a change in system information occurs, the UE attempts to read at least modificationPeriodCoeff times during the modification period, and for ETWS and CMAS notification the UE attempts to read at least once every defaultPagingCycle.

The paging frame and paging occasion are defined in sections 7.1 and 7.2 of version 10.3.0 of 3GPP TS 36.304. These sections are reproduced as Text Box 3 at the end of the Detailed Description section of this document. The paging frame and paging occasion depend on the International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) of the UE. In idle mode, the UE monitors a specific paging occasion in a paging frame. If there is a paging message for the UE, the paging occasion will include a resource block assignment where the UE should receive the paging message. In idle mode, the UE should check at least one paging occasion per default paging cycle (or per discontinuous reception (DRX) cycle).

In connected mode, the UE may also receive paging messages for a system information change or for ETWS/CMAS notification. Since those notifications are common for all UEs, a UE may read paging messages in any available paging occasions. It should be noted that the density of the paging frames is dependent upon the parameter nB. The busier a network is, the more paging needs to occur, and the higher the value of nB will be. For example, as shown in FIG. 5a, if nB is set to T/4, every fourth radio frame 510 contains a paging occasion 520. As shown in FIG. 5b, if nB is set to 4 T, every radio frame 510 contains four paging occasions 520. FIG. 5c depicts a paging occasion 520a that is aligned with a restricted subframe 530 and a paging occasion 520b that is not aligned with a restricted subframe.

Parameters related to paging are signaled by the RRC protocol as specified in version 10.3.0 of 3GPP TS 36.331 and as shown in Text Box 4 at the end of the Detailed Description section of this document. PCCH Config contains the default paging cycle and nB. BCCH Config contains the modification period coefficient.

DRX operation in connected mode is defined in section 5.7 of version 10.3.0 of the Medium Access Control (MAC) specification, 3GPP TS 36.321. That section is reproduced as Text Box 5 at the end of the Detailed Description section of this document. The UE monitors the PDCCH in active time including the on-duration period. The start of the on-duration period is determined by a DRX start offset and a DRX cycle length. The objective of the DRX start offset is to evenly distribute traffic to be handled over each subframe. It should be noted that the UE might need to monitor the PDCCH according to other requirements, such as the paging channel reception described in section 5.5 of 3GPP TS 36.321.

It may be difficult to ensure that every paging occasion fits into a restricted subframe to protect paging messages from interference. Therefore, in a HetNet deployment, measures may need to be taken to ensure reliable decoding of paging messages. Implementations described herein provide for alignment between paging occasions and subframe patterns.

More specifically, in connected mode, a UE is allowed to read paging in any paging occasions. In a HetNet scenario, the UE may choose to read paging occasions that are in restricted subframes for more reliable paging detection. Implementations described herein may specify how paging occasions and subframe patterns may be aligned in a typical macro/pico scenario and how to deal with their misalignment, if any. That is, the implementations disclosed herein provide for paging occasions that occur at substantially the same time as restricted subframes and provide techniques for dealing with situations where paging occasions do not occur at substantially the same time as restricted subframes.

Due to its small radius, the paging load of a pico cell may not be high. Therefore, the nB parameter described above is most likely configured to T/K (K=1, 2, 4, 8, 16 or 32) to have a single paging occasion in every K radio frames. In FDD, subframe 9 is the single paging occasion within a paging frame. In the macro/pico scenario, the number of ABS subframes is limited to a small number in order to handle a large volume of traffic in the macro cell. The typical subframe pattern for measurement resource restriction in this scenario is one restricted subframe out of eight subframes (1/8), considering the minimum round trip time associated with a Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (HARQ) process. The restricted subframe pattern may be a 40-bit string (in FDD) where the 8-bit subframe pattern is repeated five times. For example, if the first subframe of every eight subframes is configured as a restricted subframe, the restricted subframe pattern may be “10000000 10000000 10000000 10000000 10000000” (may also be referred to as RSFP 0 since the subframe at position 0 is the restricted subframe). Based on the above assumptions, the alignment between subframe patterns and three PCCH configurations will now be considered.

Table 1 below shows paging occasions (PO) in subframes and the positions of restricted subframes (RSFP) which fit into the paging occasions. The value of nB is set to 64, 32 and 16 radio frames in the first, second and third configurations, respectively. In all the configurations, the default paging cycle is 64 radio frames (640 milliseconds (ms)). In Conf 1, nB is set to 64 (same as the default paging cycle), so there is one paging occasion in each radio frame. In Conf 2, nB is set to 32 (one half of the default paging cycle), resulting in one paging occasion each two radio frames. In Conf 3, nB is set to 16 (one fourth of the default paging cycle), resulting in one paging occasion every four radio frames. In this example, the paging occasions always occur in subframe 9 (subframes are numbered 0-9) based on the configuration of nB and the default paging cycle.

TABLE 1 Paging Conf 1 Conf 2 Conf3 Occasion RSFP RSFP RSFP  9 1 1 1  19 3  29 5 5  39 7  49 1 1 1  59 3  69 5 5  79 7  89 1 1 1  99 3 109 5 5 119 7 129 1 1 1 139 3 149 5 5 159 7 169 1 1 1 179 3 189 5 5 199 7 209 1 1 1 219 3 229 5 5 239 7 249 1 1 1 259 3 269 5 5 279 7 289 1 1 1 299 3 309 5 5 319 7 . . . . . . . . . . . .

To determine which restricted subframe pattern will correspond with the paging occasion subframe, a modulo 8 calculation is performed (the restricted subframe pattern repeats every 8 bits). RSFP is calculated as modulo 8 of paging occasion in subframes. It can be seen that the paging occasions fit into only a limited number of subframe patterns. In the second configuration, for example, paging occasions fit into only the two subframe patterns RSFP 1 (“01000000 01000000 . . . ”) and RSFP 5 (“00000100 00000100 . . . ”). It can thus be seen that, with a certain combination of PCCH configuration and subframe patterns, the paging occasions might not be protected from interference.

If RSFP 5 is configured by the victim cell, it may be preferable for the UE to read paging in subframe 29, 69, 109, . . . not in subframe 9, 49, 89, . . . for more reliable paging detection. It may be preferable to avoid a case where the network configures other subframe patterns that are not included in Table 1, for example RSFP of 2. In such a case, all of the paging occasions may be in normal subframes and may suffer from interference, and the UE may fail to detect paging messages. It may thus be observed that, with certain combinations of PCCH configuration and subframe pattern, the paging occasions may never be protected from interference.

In accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure, the nB parameter of the victim cell may be configured in dependence upon the restricted subframe pattern of the aggressor cell, or vice versa. For example, when the nB parameter is configured to be less than or equal to T (the default paging cycle or a UE-specific paging cycle), the network can configure a subframe pattern whose restricted subframes include the paging occasions to be used by the pico cell in order to protect paging occasions from interference.

In accordance with another embodiment of the present disclosure, a UE may take the nB parameter and restricted subframe pattern into account when determining which paging occasions to monitor. For example, the UE is required to read paging occasions at least once in each default paging cycle to detect ETWS and CMAS notifications. However, the UE may determine whether paging occasions are aligned with the configured subframe pattern for a received PCCH and subframe pattern configuration. In case of misalignment, the UE may attempt to read paging in additional paging occasions. In an embodiment, the UE attempts to read paging in additional paging occasions to detect paging more reliably if the paging occasions are not aligned with the configured restricted subframe pattern.

In accordance with another embodiment of the present disclosure, the network may configure the nB parameter to 2 T or 4 T in a HetNet deployment. When the nB parameter is set to be more than T, there are more paging occasions in the paging frames, and the distribution of the paging occasions results in less likelihood of interference.

Table 2 below shows the alignment of paging occasions and positions of restricted subframes when nB is configured to be 2 T. As shown, with all of the 1/8 subframe patterns, every paging frame will include at least one paging occasion that is protected regardless of which one of the 1/8 restricted subframe patterns is used. In other words, the UE can find a paging occasion protected by a restricted subframe regardless of which one of the 1/8 subframe patterns is configured. Since the paging occasions that a UE reads in connected mode are determined by the UE implementation, more frequent paging occasions may not impact UE battery consumption.

TABLE 2 PO in SF RSF Position  4 4  9 1  14 6  19 3  24 0  29 5  34 2  39 7  44 4  49 1  54 6  59 3  64 0  69 5  74 2  79 7  84 4  89 1  94 6  99 3 104 0 109 5 114 2 . . . . . .

It should be understood that restricted subframe patterns may not be 1/8 patterns. For example, a 1/10 pattern (where the restricted subframe pattern repeats every 10 bits) may be configured. Similar to the previous examples, careful selection of the nB parameter and the subframe pattern may result in less interference of the paging occasions used by a victim cell.

Table 3 below shows 1/10 subframe patterns (one restricted subframe out of 10 subframes) aligned to the paging occasions in two different configurations in FDD. In the first configuration, nB in the PCCH configuration is set to 4 T, and in the second configuration, nB is set to T. As shown, four subframe patterns can be used with nB set to 4 T. However, only one subframe pattern is available when nB is set to T. Having only one subframe pattern in an entire network may be too restrictive. By setting nB to 2 T or 4 T, more subframe patterns are available to protect paging occasions. The above is also applicable to TDD.

TABLE 3 PO Config 1 Config 2 in SF RSFP RSFP 0 0 4 4 5 5 9 9 1 10 0 14 4 15 5 19 9 1 20 0 24 4 25 5 29 9 1 30 0 34 4 35 5 39 9 1 40 0 44 4 45 5 49 9 1 . . . . . . . . .

If the UE finds that the PCCH configuration and the subframe pattern do not align, the UE can decide to read more than the system information change and the ETWS/CMAS monitoring requirements to ensure reliable detection.

These concepts can be implemented by the changes to the current RRC specification (3GPP TS 36.331) as shown in an embodiment of the disclosure below.

5.3.10.8 Time domain measurement resource restriction for serving cell (Alternative 1)

The UE shall:

1> if the received measSubframePatternPCell is set to release:

    • 2> release the time domain measurement resource restriction for the PCell, if previously configured

1> else:

    • 2> apply the time domain measurement resource restriction for the PCell in accordance with the received measSubframePattern;
      NOTE: A network should ensure that at least one paging occasion in a default paging cycle coincides with at least one restricted subframe indicated by measSubframePatternPCell.

Alternatively, additional description with regard to nB configuration can be added to the existing ASN.1 definition as shown in an embodiment of the disclosure below.

RadioResourceConfigCommon field descriptions additionalSpectrumEmissionSCell The UE requirements related to IE AdditionalSpectrumEmissionSCellare defined in TS 36.101 [42]. defaultPagingCycle Default paging cycle, used to derive ‘T’ in TS 36.304 [4]. Value rf32 corresponds to 32 radio frames, rf64 corresponds to 64 radio frames and so on. modificationPeriodCoeff Actual modification period, expressed in number of radio frames = modificationPeriodCoeff* defaultPagingCycle. n2 corresponds to value 2, n4 corresponds to value 4, n8 corresponds to value 8 and n16 corresponds to value 16. nB Parameter: nB is used as one of parameters to derive the Paging Frame and Paging Occasion according to TS 36.304 [4]. Value in multiples of ‘T’ as defined in TS 36.304 [4]. A value of fourT corresponds to 4 * T, a value of twoT corresponds to 2 * T and so on. When ABS subframes are used in a pico cell, nB should be set to four T or two T.

Additional discussion will now be provided regarding an issue with the handling of measSubframePattemConfigNeigh upon reestablishment.

Upon initialization of RRC connection reestablishment, the UE releases the time domain measurement resource restriction for PCell (measSubframePatternPCell) and CSI estimation (csi-SubframePatternConfig), but the UE maintains (measSubframePatternConfigNeigh). The target eNB handling the reestablishment may configure measSubframePatternPCell and Sub framePatternConfig by a RRCConnectionReestablishment message if they are applicable to the UE. After the reestablishment, the eNB may also reconfigure measSubframePatternConfigNeigh by a RRCConnectionReconfiguration message if reconfiguration is required. On the other hand, in the case of a handover, the target eNB may reconfigure all three subframe patterns by one reconfiguration message (handover command).

The concepts described above may be implemented by a network element. A simplified network element is shown with regard to FIG. 6. In FIG. 6, network element 3110 includes a processor 3120 and a communications subsystem 3130, where the processor 3120 and communications subsystem 3130 cooperate to perform the methods described above.

Further, the above may be implemented by a UE. One exemplary device is described below with regard to FIG. 7. UE 3200 is typically a two-way wireless communication device having voice and data communication capabilities. UE 3200 generally has the capability to communicate with other computer systems on the Internet. Depending on the exact functionality provided, the UE may be referred to as a data messaging device, a two-way pager, a wireless e-mail device, a cellular telephone with data messaging capabilities, a wireless Internet appliance, a wireless device, a mobile device, or a data communication device, as examples.

Where UE 3200 is enabled for two-way communication, it may incorporate a communication subsystem 3211, including a receiver 3212 and a transmitter 3214, as well as associated components such as one or more antenna elements 3216 and 3218, local oscillators (LOs) 3213, and a processing module such as a digital signal processor (DSP) 3220. As will be apparent to those skilled in the field of communications, the particular design of the communication subsystem 3211 will be dependent upon the communication network in which the device is intended to operate.

Network access requirements will also vary depending upon the type of network 3219. In some networks network access is associated with a subscriber or user of UE 3200. A UE may require a removable user identity module (RUIM) or a subscriber identity module (SIM) card in order to operate on a network. The SIM/RUIM interface 3244 is normally similar to a card-slot into which a SIM/RUIM card can be inserted and ejected. The SIM/RUIM card can have memory and hold many key configurations 3251, and other information 3253 such as identification, and subscriber related information.

When required network registration or activation procedures have been completed, UE 3200 may send and receive communication signals over the network 3219. As illustrated in FIG. 7, network 3219 can consist of multiple base stations communicating with the UE.

Signals received by antenna 3216 through communication network 3219 are input to receiver 3212, which may perform such common receiver functions as signal amplification, frequency down conversion, filtering, channel selection and the like. Analog to digital (A/D) conversion of a received signal allows more complex communication functions such as demodulation and decoding to be performed in the DSP 3220. In a similar manner, signals to be transmitted are processed, including modulation and encoding for example, by DSP 3220 and input to transmitter 3214 for digital to analog (D/A) conversion, frequency up conversion, filtering, amplification and transmission over the communication network 3219 via antenna 3218. DSP 3220 not only processes communication signals, but also provides for receiver and transmitter control. For example, the gains applied to communication signals in receiver 3212 and transmitter 3214 may be adaptively controlled through automatic gain control algorithms implemented in DSP 3220.

UE 3200 generally includes a processor 3238 which controls the overall operation of the device. Communication functions, including data and voice communications, are performed through communication subsystem 3211. Processor 3238 also interacts with further device subsystems such as the display 3222, flash memory 3224, random access memory (RAM) 3226, auxiliary input/output (I/O) subsystems 3228, serial port 3230, one or more keyboards or keypads 3232, speaker 3234, microphone 3236, other communication subsystem 3240 such as a short-range communications subsystem and any other device subsystems generally designated as 3242. Serial port 3230 could include a USB port or other port known to those in the art.

Some of the subsystems shown in FIG. 7 perform communication-related functions, whereas other subsystems may provide “resident” or on-device functions. Notably, some subsystems, such as keyboard 3232 and display 3222, for example, may be used for both communication-related functions, such as entering a text message for transmission over a communication network, and device-resident functions such as a calculator or task list.

Operating system software used by the processor 3238 may be stored in a persistent store such as flash memory 3224, which may instead be a read-only memory (ROM) or similar storage element (not shown). Those skilled in the art will appreciate that the operating system, specific device applications, or parts thereof, may be temporarily loaded into a volatile memory such as RAM 3226. Received communication signals may also be stored in RAM 3226.

As shown, flash memory 3224 can be segregated into different areas for both computer programs 3258 and program data storage 3250, 3252, 3254 and 3256. These different storage types indicate that each program can allocate a portion of flash memory 3224 for their own data storage requirements. Processor 3238, in addition to its operating system functions, may enable execution of software applications on the UE. A predetermined set of applications that control basic operations, including at least data and voice communication applications for example, will normally be installed on UE 3200 during manufacturing. Other applications could be installed subsequently or dynamically.

Applications and software may be stored on any computer readable storage medium. The computer readable storage medium may be a tangible or in transitory/non-transitory medium such as optical (e.g., CD, DVD, etc.), magnetic (e.g., tape) or other memory known in the art.

One software application may be a personal information manager (PIM) application having the ability to organize and manage data items relating to the user of the UE such as, but not limited to, e-mail, calendar events, voice mails, appointments, and task items. Naturally, one or more memory stores may be available on the UE to facilitate storage of PIM data items. Such PIM application may have the ability to send and receive data items, via the wireless network 3219. Further applications may also be loaded onto the UE 3200 through the network 3219, an auxiliary I/O subsystem 3228, serial port 3230, short-range communications subsystem 3240 or any other suitable subsystem 3242, and installed by a user in the RAM 3226 or a non-volatile store (not shown) for execution by the processor 3238. Such flexibility in application installation increases the functionality of the device and may provide enhanced on-device functions, communication-related functions, or both. For example, secure communication applications may enable electronic commerce functions and other such financial transactions to be performed using the UE 3200.

In a data communication mode, a received signal such as a text message or web page download will be processed by the communication subsystem 3211 and input to the processor 3238, which may further process the received signal for output to the display 3222, or alternatively to an auxiliary I/O device 3228.

A user of UE 3200 may also compose data items such as email messages for example, using the keyboard 3232, which may be a complete alphanumeric keyboard or telephone-type keypad, among others, in conjunction with the display 3222 and possibly an auxiliary I/O device 3228. Such composed items may then be transmitted over a communication network through the communication subsystem 3211.

For voice communications, overall operation of UE 3200 is similar, except that received signals may typically be output to a speaker 3234 and signals for transmission may be generated by a microphone 3236. Alternative voice or audio I/O subsystems, such as a voice message recording subsystem, may also be implemented on UE 3200. Although voice or audio signal output is preferably accomplished primarily through the speaker 3234, display 3222 may also be used to provide an indication of the identity of a calling party, the duration of a voice call, or other voice call related information for example.

Serial port 3230 in FIG. 7 may normally be implemented in a personal digital assistant (PDA)-type UE for which synchronization with a user's desktop computer (not shown) may be desirable, but is an optional device component. Such a port 3230 may enable a user to set preferences through an external device or software application and may extend the capabilities of UE 3200 by providing for information or software downloads to UE 3200 other than through a wireless communication network. The alternate download path may for example be used to load an encryption key onto the device through a direct and thus reliable and trusted connection to thereby enable secure device communication. As will be appreciated by those skilled in the art, serial port 3230 can further be used to connect the UE to a computer to act as a modem.

Other communications subsystems 3240, such as a short-range communications subsystem, is a further optional component which may provide for communication between UE 3200 and different systems or devices, which need not necessarily be similar devices. For example, the subsystem 3240 may include an infrared device and associated circuits and components or a Bluetooth™ communication module to provide for communication with similarly enabled systems and devices. Subsystem 3240 may further include non-cellular communications such as WiFi or WiMAX.

The UE and other components described above might include a processing component that is capable of executing instructions related to the actions described above. FIG. 8 illustrates an example of a system 3300 that includes a processing component 3310 suitable for implementing one or more embodiments disclosed herein. The processing component 3310 may be substantially similar to the processor 3120 of FIG. 6 and/or the processor 3238 of FIG. 7.

In addition to the processor 3310 (which may be referred to as a central processor unit or CPU), the system 3300 might include network connectivity devices 3320, random access memory (RAM) 3330, read only memory (ROM) 3340, secondary storage 3350, and input/output (I/O) devices 3360. These components might communicate with one another via a bus 3370. In some cases, some of these components may not be present or may be combined in various combinations with one another or with other components not shown. These components might be located in a single physical entity or in more than one physical entity. Any actions described herein as being taken by the processor 3310 might be taken by the processor 3310 alone or by the processor 3310 in conjunction with one or more components shown or not shown in the drawing, such as a digital signal processor (DSP) 3380. Although the DSP 3380 is shown as a separate component, the DSP 3380 might be incorporated into the processor 3310.

The processor 3310 executes instructions, codes, computer programs, or scripts that it might access from the network connectivity devices 3320, RAM 3330, ROM 3340, or secondary storage 3350 (which might include various disk-based systems such as hard disk, floppy disk, or optical disk). While only one CPU 3310 is shown, multiple processors may be present. Thus, while instructions may be discussed as being executed by a processor, the instructions may be executed simultaneously, serially, or otherwise by one or multiple processors. The processor 3310 may be implemented as one or more CPU chips.

The network connectivity devices 3320 may take the form of modems, modem banks, Ethernet devices, universal serial bus (USB) interface devices, serial interfaces, token ring devices, fiber distributed data interface (FDDI) devices, wireless local area network (WLAN) devices, radio transceiver devices such as code division multiple access (CDMA) devices, global system for mobile communications (GSM) radio transceiver devices, universal mobile telecommunications system (UMTS) radio transceiver devices, long term evolution (LTE) radio transceiver devices, worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) devices, and/or other well-known devices for connecting to networks. These network connectivity devices 3320 may enable the processor 3310 to communicate with the Internet or one or more telecommunications networks or other networks from which the processor 3310 might receive information or to which the processor 3310 might output information. The network connectivity devices 3320 might also include one or more transceiver components 3325 capable of transmitting and/or receiving data wirelessly.

The RAM 3330 might be used to store volatile data and perhaps to store instructions that are executed by the processor 3310. The ROM 3340 is a non-volatile memory device that typically has a smaller memory capacity than the memory capacity of the secondary storage 3350. ROM 3340 might be used to store instructions and perhaps data that are read during execution of the instructions. Access to both RAM 3330 and ROM 3340 is typically faster than to secondary storage 3350. The secondary storage 3350 is typically comprised of one or more disk drives or tape drives and might be used for non-volatile storage of data or as an over-flow data storage device if RAM 3330 is not large enough to hold all working data. Secondary storage 3350 may be used to store programs that are loaded into RAM 3330 when such programs are selected for execution.

The I/O devices 3360 may include liquid crystal displays (LCDs), touch screen displays, keyboards, keypads, switches, dials, mice, track balls, voice recognizers, card readers, paper tape readers, printers, video monitors, or other well-known input/output devices. Also, the transceiver 3325 might be considered to be a component of the I/O devices 3360 instead of or in addition to being a component of the network connectivity devices 3320.

In an implementation, a method is provided for operating a UE in a wireless communications network. The method comprises using, by the UE, a frequency parameter of paging frames and a restricted subframe pattern to determine one or more paging frames and occasions to monitor.

In another implementation, a UE is provided. The UE comprises a processor configured such that the UE uses a frequency parameter of paging frames and a restricted subframe pattern to determine one or more paging frames and occasions to monitor.

In another implementation, a method is provided for operating a network element in a wireless communications network. The method comprises configuring, by the network element, a frequency parameter of paging frames for a cell in which the network element is present, such that the frequency parameter is configured based on a restricted subframe pattern in a signal transmitted in a victim cell.

In another implementation, a network element is provided. The network element comprises a processor configured such that the network element configures a frequency parameter of paging frames for a cell in which the network element is present, such that the frequency parameter is configured based on a restricted subframe pattern in a signal transmitted in a victim cell.

In another implementation, a method is provided for operating a UE in a wireless heterogeneous network including a first network element and a second network element. The method comprises receiving, by the UE, from the second network element, a pattern of network subframes associated with the first network element. The method further comprises reading, by the UE, a paging message in one of a plurality of selected subframes, wherein the interval of the selected subframes is based on a paging frequency parameter, and wherein selected transmissions of the second network element correspond with selected subframes of the pattern of network subframes associated with the first network element.

The following are incorporated herein by reference for all purposes: 3GPP TS 36.213 version 10.3.0, 3GPP TS 36.300 version 10.5.0, 3GPP TS 36.304 version 10.3.0, 3GPP TS 36.321 version 10.3.0, and 3GPP TS 36.331 version 10.3.0.

The present disclosure provides illustrative implementations of one or more embodiments. The disclosure should in no way be limited to the illustrative implementations, drawings, and techniques illustrated below, including the exemplary designs and implementations illustrated and described herein, but may be modified within the scope of the appended claims along with their full scope of equivalents. A person of skill in the relevant art will recognized that the disclosed systems and/or methods may be implemented using any number of techniques, whether currently known or in existence. Embodiments are described herein in the context of an LTE wireless network or system, but can be adapted for other wireless networks or systems.

This written description may enable those skilled in the art to make and use embodiments having alternative elements that likewise correspond to the elements of the techniques of this application. The intended scope of the techniques of this application thus includes other structures, systems or methods that do not differ from the techniques of this application as described herein, and further includes other structures, systems or methods with insubstantial differences from the techniques of this application as described herein.

While several embodiments have been provided in the present disclosure, it should be understood that the disclosed systems and methods may be embodied in many other specific forms without departing from the scope of the present disclosure. The present examples are to be considered as illustrative and not restrictive, and the intention is not to be limited to the details given herein. For example, the various elements or components may be combined or integrated in another system or certain features may be omitted, or not implemented.

Also, techniques, systems, subsystems and methods described and illustrated in the various embodiments as discrete or separate may be combined or integrated with other systems, modules, techniques, or methods without departing from the scope of the present disclosure. Other items shown or discussed as coupled or directly coupled or communicating with each other may be indirectly coupled or communicating through some interface, device, or intermediate component, whether electrically, mechanically, or otherwise. Other examples of changes, substitutions, and alterations are ascertainable by one skilled in the art and could be made without departing from the spirit and scope disclosed herein.

Text Box 1 MeasSubframePattern The IE MeasSubframePattern is used to specify time domain measurement resource restriction. The first/leftmost bit corresponds to the subframe #0 of the radio frame satisfying SFN mod x = 0, where SFN is that of PCell and x is the size of the bit string divided by 10. “1” denotes that the corresponding subframe is used for measurement. MeasSubframePattern information element -- ASN1START MeasSubframePattern-r10 ::= CHOICE { subframePatternFDD-r10 BIT STRING (SIZE (40)), subframePatternTDD-r10 CHOICE { subframeConfig1-5-r10 BIT STRING (SIZE (20)), subframeConfig0-r10 BIT STRING (SIZE (70)), subframeConfig6-r10 BIT STRING (SIZE (60)), ... }, ... }

Text Box 2 5.2.1.3 System information validity and notification of changes Change of system information (other than for ETWS and CMAS) only occurs at specific radio frames, i.e. the concept of a modification period is used. System information may be transmitted a number of times with the same content within a modification period, as defined by its scheduling. The modification period boundaries are defined by SFN values for which SFN mod m = 0, where m is the number of radio frames comprising the modification period. The modification period is configured by system information. When the network changes (some of the) system information, it first notifies the UEs about this change, i.e. this may be done throughout a modification period. In the next modification period, the network transmits the updated system information. These general principles are illustrated in FIG. 4, in which different types of shading indicate different system information. Upon receiving a change notification, the UE acquires the new system information immediately from the start of the next modification period. The UE applies the previously acquired system information until the UE acquires the new system information. The Paging message is used to inform UEs in RRC_IDLE and UEs in RRC_CONNECTED about a system information change. If the UE receives a Paging message including the systemInfoModification, it knows that the system information will change at the next modification period boundary. Although the UE may be informed about changes in system information, no further details are provided e.g. regarding which system information will change. SystemInformationBlockType1 includes a value tag, systemInfoValueTag, that indicates if a change has occurred in the SI messages. UEs may use systemInfoValueTag, e.g. upon return from out of coverage, to verify if the previously stored SI messages are still valid. Additionally, the UE considers stored system information to be invalid after 3 hours from the moment it was successfully confirmed as valid, unless specified otherwise. E-UTRAN may not update systemInfoValueTag upon change of some system information e.g. ETWS information, CMAS information, regularly changing parameters like CDMA2000 system time (see 6.3). Similarly, E-UTRAN may not include the systemInfoModification within the Paging message upon change of some system information. The UE verifies that stored system information remains valid by either checking systemInfoValueTag in SystemInformationBlockType1 after the modification period boundary, or attempting to find the systemInfoModification indication at least modificationPeriodCoeff times during the modification period in case no paging is received, in every modification period. If no paging message is received by the UE during a modification period, the UE may assume that no change of system information will occur at the next modification period boundary. If UE in RRC_CONNECTED, during a modification period, receives one paging message, it may deduce from the presence/absence of systemInfoModification whether a change of system information other than ETWS and CMAS information will occur in the next modification period or not. ETWS and/or CMAS capable UEs in RRC_CONNECTED shall attempt to read paging at least once every defaultPagingCycle to check whether ETWS and/or CMAS notification is present or not. 5.2.1.4 Indication of ETWS notification ETWS primary notification and/or ETWS secondary notification can occur at any point in time. The Paging message is used to inform ETWS capable UEs in RRC_IDLE and UEs in RRC_CONNECTED about presence of an ETWS primary notification and/or ETWS secondary notification. If the UE receives a Paging message including the etws-Indication, it shall start receiving the ETWS primary notification and/ or ETWS secondary notification according to schedulingInfoList contained in SystemInformationBlockType1. <Text omitted> 5.2.1.5 Indication of CMAS notification CMAS notification can occur at any point in time. The Paging message is used to inform CMAS capable UEs in RRC_IDLE and UEs in RRC_CONNECTED about presence of one or more CMAS notifications. If the UE receives a Paging message including the cmas-Indication, it shall start receiving the CMAS notifications according to schedulingInfoList contained in SystemInformationBlockType1. <Text omitted>

Text Box 3 7 PAGING 7.1 Discontinuous Reception for paging The UE may use Discontinuous Reception (DRX) in idle mode in order to reduce power consumption. One Paging Occasion (PO) is a subframe where there may be P-RNTI transmitted on PDCCH addressing the paging message. One Paging Frame (PF) is one Radio Frame, which may contain one or multiple Paging Occasion(s). When DRX is used the UE needs only to monitor one PO per DRX cycle. PF and PO is determined by following formulae using the DRX parameters provided in System Information: PF is given by following equation: SFN mod T = (T div N)*(UE_ID mod N) Index i_s pointing to PO from subframe pattern defined in 7.2 will be derived from following calculation: i_s = floor(UE_ID/N) mod Ns System Information DRX parameters stored in the UE shall be updated locally in the UE whenever the DRX parameter values are changed in SI. If the UE has no IMSI, for instance when making an emergency call without USIM, the UE shall use as default identity UE_ID = 0 in the PF and i_s formulas above. The following Parameters are used for the calculation of the PF and i_s: T: DRX cycle of the UE. T is determined by the shortest of the UE specific DRX value, if allocated by upper layers, and a default DRX value broadcast in system information. If UE specific DRX is not configured by upper layers, the default value is applied. nB: 4T, 2T, T, T/2, T/4, T/8, T/16, T/32. N: min(T, nB) Ns: max(1, nB/T) UE_ID: IMSI mod 1024. IMSI is given as sequence of digits of type Integer (0 . . . 9), IMSI shall in the formulae above be interpreted as a decimal integer number, where the first digit given in the sequence represents the highest order digit. For example: IMSI = 12 (digit1 = 1, digit2 = 2) In the calculations, this shall be interpreted as the decimal integer “12”, not “1 × 16 + 2 = 18”. 7.2 Subframe Patterns Ns PO when i_s = 0 PO when i_s = 1 PO when i_s = 2 PO when i_s = 3 FDD: 1 9 N/A N/A N/A 2 4 9 N/A N/A 4 0 4 5 9 TDD (all UL/DL configurations): 1 0 N/A N/A N/A 2 0 5 N/A N/A 4 0 1 5 6

Text Box 4 RadioResourceConfigCommon The IE RadioResourceConfigCommonSIB and IE RadioResourceConfigCommon are used to specify common radio resource configurations in the system information and in the mobility control information, respectively, e.g., the random access parameters and the static physical layer parameters. RadioResourceConfigCommon information element -- ASN1START RadioResourceConfigCommonSIB ::= SEQUENCE { rach-ConfigCommon RACH-ConfigCommon, bcch-Config BCCH-Config, pcch-Config PCCH-Config, prach-Config PRACH-ConfigSIB, pdsch-ConfigCommon PDSCH-ConfigCommon, pusch-ConfigCommon PUSCH-ConfigCommon, pucch-configCommon PUCCH-ConfigCommon, soundingRS-UL-ConfigCommon SoundingRS-UL-ConfigCommon, uplinkPowerControlCommon UplinkPowerControlCommon, ul-CyclicPrefixLength UL-CyclicPrefixLength, ..., [[ uplinkPowerControlCommon-v1020 UplinkPowerControlCommon-v1020 OPTIONAL -- Need OR ]] } <text omited> BCCH-Config ::= SEQUENCE { modificationPeriodCoeff ENUMERATED {n2, n4, n8, n16} } PCCH-Config ::= SEQUENCE { defaultPagingCycle ENUMERATED { rf32, rf64, rf128, rf256}, nB ENUMERATED { fourT, twoT, oneT, halfT, quarterT, oneEighthT, oneSixteenthT, oneThirtySecondT} } defaultPagingCycle Default paging cycle, used to derive ‘T’ in TS 36.304. Value rf32 corresponds to 32 radio frames, rf64 corresponds to 64 radio frames and so on. modificationPeriodCoeff Actual modification period, expressed in number of radio frames= modificationPeriodCoeff* defaultPagingCycle. n2 corresponds to value 2, n4 corresponds to value 4, n8 corresponds to value 8 and n16 corresponds to value 16. nB Parameter: nB is used as one of parameters to derive the Paging Frame and Paging Occasion according to TS 36.304. Value in multiples of ‘T’ as defined in TS 36.304 [4]. A value of fourT corresponds to 4 * T, a value of twoT corresponds to 2 * T and so on.

Text Box 5 5.5 PCH reception When the UE needs to receive PCH, the UE shall: if a PCH assignment has been received on the PDCCH of the PCell for the P-RNTI: attempt to decode the TB on the PCH as indicated by the PDCCH information. if a TB on the PCH has been successfully decoded: deliver the decoded MAC PDU to upper layers.  <text omited> 5.7 Discontinuous Reception (DRX) The UE may be configured by RRC with a DRX functionality that controls the UE's PDCCH monitoring activity for the UE's C-RNTI, TPC-PUCCH-RNTI, TPC-PUSCH-RNTI and Semi-Persistent Scheduling C-RNTI (if configured). When in RRC_CONNECTED, if DRX is configured, the UE is allowed to monitor the PDCCH discontinuously using the DRX operation specified in this subclause; otherwise the UE monitors the PDCCH continuously. When using DRX operation, the UE shall also monitor PDCCH according to requirements found in other subclauses of this specification. RRC controls DRX operation by configuring the timers onDurationTimer, drx-InactivityTimer, drx-RetransmissionTimer (one per DL HARQ process except for the broadcast process), the longDRX-Cycle, the value of the drxStartOffset and optionally the drxShortCycleTimer and shortDRX-Cycle. A HARQ RTT timer per DL HARQ process (except for the broadcast process) is also defined (see subclause 7.7). When a DRX cycle is configured, the Active Time includes the time while: onDurationTimer or drx-InactivityTimer or drx-RetransmissionTimer or mac-ContentionResolutionTimer (as described in subclause 5.1.5) is running; or a Scheduling Request is sent on PUCCH and is pending (as described in subclause 5.4.4); or an uplink grant for a pending HARQ retransmission can occur and there is data in the corresponding HARQ buffer; or a PDCCH indicating a new transmission addressed to the C-RNTI of the UE has not been received after successful reception of a Random Access Response for the preamble not selected by the UE (as described in subclause 5.1.4). When DRX is configured, the UE shall for each subframe: if a HARQ RTT Timer expires in this subframe and the data in the soft buffer of the corresponding HARQ process was not successfully decoded: start the drx-RetransmissionTimer for the corresponding HARQ process. if a DRX Command MAC control element is received: stop onDurationTimer; stop drx-InactivityTimer. if drx-InactivityTimer expires or a DRX Command MAC control element is received in this subframe: if the Short DRX cycle is configured: start or restart drxShortCycleTimer; use the Short DRX Cycle. else: use the Long DRX cycle. if drxShortCycleTimer expires in this subframe: use the Long DRX cycle. If the Short DRX Cycle is used and [(SFN * 10) + subframe number] modulo (shortDRX-Cycle) = (drxStartOffset) modulo (short DRX-Cycle); or if the Long DRX Cycle is used and [(SFN * 10) + subframe number] modulo (longDRX-Cycle) = drxStartOffset: start onDurationTimer. during the Active Time, for a PDCCH-subframe, if the subframe is not required for uplink transmission for half-duplex FDD UE operation and if the subframe is not part of a configured measurement gap: monitor the PDCCH; if the PDCCH indicates a DL transmission or if a DL assignment has been configured for this subframe: start the HARQ RTT Timer for the corresponding HARQ process; stop the drx-RetransmissionTimer for the corresponding HARQ process. if the PDCCH indicates a new transmission (DL or UL): start or restart drx-InactivityTimer. when not in Active Time, type-0-triggered SRS [2] shall not be reported. if CQI masking (cqi-Mask) is setup by upper layers: when onDurationTimer is not running, CQI/PMI/RI/PTI on PUCCH shall not be reported. else: when not in Active Time, CQI/PMI/RI/PTI on PUCCH shall not be reported. Regardless of whether the UE is monitoring PDCCH or not, the UE receives and transmits HARQ feedback and transmits type-1-triggered SRS [2] when such is expected. NOTE: A UE may optionally choose to not send CQI/PMI/RI/PTI reports on PUCCH and/or type-0-triggered SRS transmissions for up to 4 subframes following a PDCCH indicating a new transmission (UL or DL) received in the last subframe of active time. The choice not to send CQI/PMI/RI/PTI reports on PUCCH and/or type-0-triggered SRS transmissions is not applicable for subframes where onDurationTimer is running. NOTE: The same active time applies to all activated serving cell(s).

Claims

1. A method for operating a network element in a heterogeneous wireless communications network, the method comprising:
configuring, by the network element, a frequency parameter of paging frames for a victim cell in which the network element is present, such that the frequency parameter is configured with a restricted subframe pattern, the restricted subframe pattern being selected from a plurality of restricted subframe patterns for a User Equipment (UE) in the victim cell,
wherein the frequency parameter and the restricted subframe pattern are configured such that at least one paging occasion is protected by at least one restricted subframe.
configuring, by the network element, a frequency parameter of paging frames for a victim cell in which the network element is present, such that the frequency parameter is configured with a restricted subframe pattern, the restricted subframe pattern being selected from a plurality of restricted subframe patterns for a User Equipment (UE) in the victim cell,
wherein the frequency parameter and the restricted subframe pattern are configured such that at least one paging occasion is protected by at least one restricted subframe.
2. The method of claim 1, wherein the frequency parameter is a factor of two or a factor of four times greater than a discontinuous reception (DRX) cycle of a user equipment to which the network element transmits the frequency parameter.
3. The method of claim 1, wherein the network element is a victim node in a heterogeneous network.
4. The method of claim 3, wherein the victim node is at least one of:
a pico cell;
a femto cell;
a relay; or
a macro cell.
a pico cell;
a femto cell;
a relay; or
a macro cell.
5. The method of claim 1, further comprising transmitting information not specific to the UE in a paging message during any paging occasion.
6. A network element in a heterogeneous wireless communications network, the network element comprising:
a processor configured such that the network element configures a frequency parameter of paging frames for a victim cell in which the network element is present, such that the frequency parameter is configured with a restricted subframe pattern, the restricted subframe pattern being selected from a plurality of restricted subframe patterns for a User Equipment (UE) in the victim cell,
wherein the frequency parameter and the restricted subframe pattern are configured such that at least one paging occasion is protected by at least one restricted subframe.
a processor configured such that the network element configures a frequency parameter of paging frames for a victim cell in which the network element is present, such that the frequency parameter is configured with a restricted subframe pattern, the restricted subframe pattern being selected from a plurality of restricted subframe patterns for a User Equipment (UE) in the victim cell,
wherein the frequency parameter and the restricted subframe pattern are configured such that at least one paging occasion is protected by at least one restricted subframe.
7. The network element of claim 6, wherein the frequency parameter is a factor of two or a factor of four times greater than a discontinuous reception (DRX) cycle of a user equipment to which the network element transmits the frequency parameter.
8. The network element of claim 6, wherein the network element is a victim node in a heterogeneous network.
9. The network element of claim 8, wherein the victim node is at least one of:
a pico cell;
a femto cell;
a relay; or
a macro cell.
a pico cell;
a femto cell;
a relay; or
a macro cell.
10. The network element of claim 6, wherein the processor is further configured such that the network element transmits information not specific to the UE in a paging message during any paging occasion.
11. A method for operating network elements in a wireless heterogeneous network including a first network element and a second network element, the method comprising:
receiving, by the second network element, from the first network element, a first pattern of restricted subframes associated with the first network element, wherein the first pattern is selected from a plurality of patterns; and
sending, by the second network element, a message to configure a user equipment (UE) with a second pattern of restricted subframes, wherein at least one paging occasion configured by the second network element is protected by at least one of the restricted subframes indicated by the second pattern.
receiving, by the second network element, from the first network element, a first pattern of restricted subframes associated with the first network element, wherein the first pattern is selected from a plurality of patterns; and
sending, by the second network element, a message to configure a user equipment (UE) with a second pattern of restricted subframes, wherein at least one paging occasion configured by the second network element is protected by at least one of the restricted subframes indicated by the second pattern.
12. The method of claim 11, wherein the first network element is an overlay network element and the second network element is an underlay network element.
13. The method of claim 11, wherein the first network element is an underlay network element and the second network element is an overlay network element.
14. The method of claim 11, wherein selected subframes of the first or second pattern have been selected by the first or the second network element to promote intercell interference coordination.
15. The method of claim 14, wherein the selected subframes have been aligned by the second network element.
16. The method of claim 11, further comprising transmitting information not specific to the UE in a paging message during any paging occasion.