Imported: 13 Feb '17 | Published: 11 Oct '16
USPTO - Utility Patents
A method for operating a UE in a wireless communications network is provided. The method comprises using, by the UE, a frequency parameter of paging frames and a restricted subframe pattern to determine one or more paging frames and occasions to monitor.
This application is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 14/537,278 filed Nov. 10, 2014 by Takashi Suzuki entitled, “Paging in Heterogeneous Networks Using Restricted Subframe Patterns” which is a continuation of U.S. Pat. No. 8,885,509 issued on Nov. 11, 2014 entitled, “Paging in Heterogeneous Networks Using Restricted Subframe Patterns”, which claims priority to U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61/556,087, filed Nov. 4, 2011 by Takashi Suzuki entitled, “Paging in Heterogeneous Networks Using Restricted Subframe Patterns”, all of which are incorporated by reference herein as if reproduced in their entirety.
As telecommunications technology has evolved, more advanced network access equipment has been introduced that can provide services that were not possible previously. This network access equipment might include systems and devices that are improvements of the equivalent equipment in a traditional wireless telecommunications system. Such advanced network access equipment may be included in evolving wireless communications standards, such as long-term evolution (LTE). For example, in an LTE system the advanced network access equipment might include an Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN) node B (eNB). In various wireless communications systems, the advanced network access equipment may include a base station a wireless access point, or a similar component operable as an access node according to a corresponding wireless communications standard. Any such component will be referred to herein as an eNB, but it should be understood that such a component is not necessarily an eNB. Such a component may also be referred to herein as an access node or base station.
LTE may be said to correspond to Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Release 8 (Rel-8 or R8), Release 9 (Rel-9 or R9), and Release 10 (Rel-10 or R10), and possibly also to releases beyond Release 10, while LTE Advanced (LTE-A) may be said to correspond to Release 10 and possibly also to releases beyond Release 10. While the present disclosure is described in relation to an LTE-A system, the concepts are equally applicable to other wireless communications systems as well.
As used herein, the term “user equipment” (alternatively “UE”) refers to equipment that communicates with an access node to obtain services via the wireless communications system. A UE might in some cases refer to mobile devices such as mobile telephones, personal digital assistants, handheld or laptop computers, and similar devices that have telecommunications capabilities. Such a UE might include a device and its associated removable memory module, such as but not limited to a Universal Integrated Circuit Card (UICC) that includes a Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) application, a Universal Subscriber Identity Module (USIM) application, or a Removable User Identity Module (R-UIM) application. Alternatively, such a UE might include the device itself without such a module. In other cases, the term “UE” might refer to devices that have similar capabilities but that are not transportable, such as desktop computers, set-top boxes, or network appliances. The term “UE” can also refer to any hardware or software component that can terminate a communication session for a user. Also, the terms “user equipment,” “UE,” “user agent,” “UA,” “user device,” and “mobile device” might be used synonymously herein.
In wireless telecommunications systems, transmission equipment in an access node transmits signals throughout a geographical region referred to as a cell. One type of access node, such as an eNB, may be associated with a macro cell. Another type of access node, such as a low power node (e.g., femto cells, relays, or pico cells), may be associated with a low power cell. A heterogeneous network (HetNet) is a network that can include macro cells and low-power cells. For example, a HetNet may include a system of macro cells that operate at high power levels, and a system of low power cells, such as pico cells and relay nodes, which operate at reduced power levels. The low power cells can be overlaid on top of the macro cells, possibly sharing the same frequency. The low power cells may be used to offload the macro cells, improve coverage, and/or increase network performance. 3GPP has studied HetNet deployments as a performance enhancement enabler in LTE-Advanced (Release 10). In HetNet deployments, inter-cell interference coordination (ICIC) can prevent interference between the signals transmitted by the macro cell and the low-power nodes. Time domain-based resource sharing or coordination has been adopted as enhanced ICIC (eICIC). As described in 3GPP Technical Specification (TS) 36.300, the deployment scenarios where eICIC is utilized may include a closed subscriber group (CSG) (also referred to as femto cell) scenario and a pico cell scenario.
In the CSG scenario, a dominant interference condition may occur when non-member users are in close proximity to a CSG cell. Typically, the Physical Downlink Control Channel (PDCCH) might be severely interfered with by downlink transmissions from a non-member CSG cell. Interference to the PDCCH of the macro cell can have a detrimental impact on both uplink and downlink data transfer between the UE and the macro cell. In addition, other downlink control channels and reference signals, from both the macro cell and the neighbor cells, that may be used for cell measurements and radio link monitoring can also be interfered with by a downlink transmission from a non-member CSG cell. Depending on network deployment and strategy, it may not be possible to divert the users suffering from inter-cell interference to another E-UTRA (Evolved UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) Terrestrial Radio Access) carrier or another radio access technology (RAT). Time domain ICIC may be used to allow such non-member UEs to remain served by the macro cell on the same frequency layer. Such interference may be mitigated by the CSG cell utilizing Almost Blank Subframes (ABSs) to protect the corresponding macro cell's subframes from the interference. ABSs are subframes with reduced transmit power and/or reduced activity (possibly including no transmission) on some physical channels. A non-member UE may be signaled to utilize the protected resources for radio resource management (RRM) measurements, radio link monitoring (RLM) and channel state information (CSI) measurements for the serving macro cell, allowing the UE to continue to be served by the macro cell under strong interference from the CSG cell.
An example of the CSG scenario is shown in FIG. 1. Since a UE 110 that is not a member of a CSG is within the coverage area of the CSG cell 120, signals from the CSG cell 120 could interfere with signals sent to the UE 110 from a macro cell 130.
In the pico scenario, time domain ICIC may be utilized for pico users that are served in the edge of the serving pico cell, e.g., for traffic off-loading from a macro cell to a pico cell. Typically, the PDCCH might be severely interfered with by downlink transmission from the macro cell. In addition, other downlink control channels and reference signals, from both the pico cell and neighbor pico cells, that may be used for cell measurements and radio link monitoring can also be interfered with by a downlink transmission from the macro cell. Time domain ICIC may be utilized to allow such UEs to remain served by the pico cell on the same frequency layer. Such interference may be mitigated by the macro cell utilizing ABSs to protect the corresponding pico cell's subframes from the interference. A UE served by a pico cell can use the protected resources for RRM, RLM, and CSI measurements for the serving pico cell.
An example of the pico scenario is shown in FIG. 2. A UE 210 that is at the edge of the coverage area of a pico cell 220 might be close enough to a macro cell 230 that signals from the macro cell 230 could interfere with signals sent to the UE 110 from the pico cell 220.
For time domain ICIC, subframe utilization across different cells can be coordinated in time through backhaul signaling or configuration of patterns in the ABS. The ABSs in an aggressor cell can be used to protect resources in subframes in a victim cell receiving strong inter-cell interference. The ABS pattern is used to identify subframes (referred to as “restricted” subframes or “protected” subframes) during which the aggressor cell transmits an almost blank subframe. The restricted subframes provide an opportunity to measure transmissions from the victim cell more accurately because there should be less or no interference from the aggressor cell.
The serving eNB can ensure backwards compatibility toward UEs by transmitting necessary control channels and physical signals as well as system information during the restricted subframes. Patterns based on ABSs can be signaled to the UE to cause the UE to restrict measurements to specific subframes. These restrictions may be time domain measurement resource restrictions. There are different patterns depending on the type of measured cell (serving or neighbor cell) and measurement type (e.g., RRM or RLM).
An example of an ABS pattern for the pico scenario is shown in FIG. 3. In this example, a macro eNB 310 (the aggressor) configures and transfers the ABS patterns to a pico eNB 320 (the victim). To protect the UEs served by the pico eNB 320 in the edge of the pico cell, the macro eNB 310 does not schedule data transmissions in ABS subframes. The pico eNB 320 may rely upon the ABS pattern to schedule transmissions to various UEs in the restricted subframes. For example, the pico eNB 320 may schedule transmissions to and from a first UE regardless of the ABS patterns, such as when the first UE is in the cell center. Alternatively, the pico eNB 320 may schedule transmissions to and from a second UE only in the restricted subframes indicated by the ABS pattern, such as when the second UE is near the cell edge.
In other words, the pico layer subframes 330 that occur at substantially the same time as the macro layer subframes 340 may be said to be aligned with those macro layer subframes 340. In subframes 340 where the macro eNB 310 is active, the pico eNB 320, in subframes 330, schedules only those UEs without excessive range extension. During pico layer subframes 350 that are aligned with almost blank macro eNB subframes 360, the pico eNB 320 can also schedule UEs that have large range extension offsets and that would otherwise not be schedulable due to too much interference from the macro layer 310.
The pico cell eNB may configure a UE at the edge of the cell with three different measurement resource restrictions independently based on an ABS pattern received from the macro cell eNB. The first restriction is for RRM measurement and RLM for the Primary cell, that is, PCell (in this case the serving pico cell). If configured, the UE measures and performs RLM of the PCell only in the restricted subframes. The second restriction is for RRM measurement of neighbor cells on the primary frequency. If configured, the UE measures neighbor cells in the restricted subframes only. The restriction also contains target neighbor cells optionally. The third restriction is for channel state estimation of the PCell. If configured, the UE estimates CSI and CQI/PMI/RI in the restricted subframes only.
The subframe pattern for the measurement restrictions in the RRC protocol in version 10.3.0 of 3GPP TS 36.331 is defined as shown in Text Box 1 at the end of the Detailed Description section of this document. In frequency division duplexing (FDD), the pattern is repetition of 40 subframes and in TDD the pattern is repetition of 20, 60 and 70 subframes depending on the configuration.
Sections 220.127.116.11 to 18.104.22.168 of version 10.3.0 of the RRC specification (3GPP TS 36.331) explain how paging is used to notify the UE of a change in system information and/or the arrival of Earthquake and Tsunami Warning System (ETWS) messages or Commercial Mobile Alert Service (CMAS) messages. These sections of 3GPP TS 36.331 are reproduced as Text Box 2 at the end of the Detailed Description section of this document. When a change in system information occurs, the UE attempts to read at least modificationPeriodCoeff times during the modification period, and for ETWS and CMAS notification the UE attempts to read at least once every defaultPagingCycle.
The paging frame and paging occasion are defined in sections 7.1 and 7.2 of version 10.3.0 of 3GPP TS 36.304. These sections are reproduced as Text Box 3 at the end of the Detailed Description section of this document. The paging frame and paging occasion depend on the International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) of the UE. In idle mode, the UE monitors a specific paging occasion in a paging frame. If there is a paging message for the UE, the paging occasion will include a resource block assignment where the UE should receive the paging message. In idle mode, the UE should check at least one paging occasion per default paging cycle (or per discontinuous reception (DRX) cycle).
In connected mode, the UE may also receive paging messages for a system information change or for ETWS/CMAS notification. Since those notifications are common for all UEs, a UE may read paging messages in any available paging occasions. It should be noted that the density of the paging frames is dependent upon the parameter nB. The busier a network is, the more paging needs to occur, and the higher the value of nB will be. For example, as shown in FIG. 5a, if nB is set to T/4, every fourth radio frame 510 contains a paging occasion 520. As shown in FIG. 5b, if nB is set to 4 T, every radio frame 510 contains four paging occasions 520. FIG. 5c depicts a paging occasion 520a that is aligned with a restricted subframe 530 and a paging occasion 520b that is not aligned with a restricted subframe.
Parameters related to paging are signaled by the RRC protocol as specified in version 10.3.0 of 3GPP TS 36.331 and as shown in Text Box 4 at the end of the Detailed Description section of this document. PCCH Config contains the default paging cycle and nB. BCCH Config contains the modification period coefficient.
DRX operation in connected mode is defined in section 5.7 of version 10.3.0 of the Medium Access Control (MAC) specification, 3GPP TS 36.321. That section is reproduced as Text Box 5 at the end of the Detailed Description section of this document. The UE monitors the PDCCH in active time including the on-duration period. The start of the on-duration period is determined by a DRX start offset and a DRX cycle length. The objective of the DRX start offset is to evenly distribute traffic to be handled over each subframe. It should be noted that the UE might need to monitor the PDCCH according to other requirements, such as the paging channel reception described in section 5.5 of 3GPP TS 36.321.
It may be difficult to ensure that every paging occasion fits into a restricted subframe to protect paging messages from interference. Therefore, in a HetNet deployment, measures may need to be taken to ensure reliable decoding of paging messages. Implementations described herein provide for alignment between paging occasions and subframe patterns.
More specifically, in connected mode, a UE is allowed to read paging in any paging occasions. In a HetNet scenario, the UE may choose to read paging occasions that are in restricted subframes for more reliable paging detection. Implementations described herein may specify how paging occasions and subframe patterns may be aligned in a typical macro/pico scenario and how to deal with their misalignment, if any. That is, the implementations disclosed herein provide for paging occasions that occur at substantially the same time as restricted subframes and provide techniques for dealing with situations where paging occasions do not occur at substantially the same time as restricted subframes.
Due to its small radius, the paging load of a pico cell may not be high. Therefore, the nB parameter described above is most likely configured to T/K (K=1, 2, 4, 8, 16 or 32) to have a single paging occasion in every K radio frames. In FDD, subframe 9 is the single paging occasion within a paging frame. In the macro/pico scenario, the number of ABS subframes is limited to a small number in order to handle a large volume of traffic in the macro cell. The typical subframe pattern for measurement resource restriction in this scenario is one restricted subframe out of eight subframes (1/8), considering the minimum round trip time associated with a Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (HARQ) process. The restricted subframe pattern may be a 40-bit string (in FDD) where the 8-bit subframe pattern is repeated five times. For example, if the first subframe of every eight subframes is configured as a restricted subframe, the restricted subframe pattern may be “10000000 10000000 10000000 10000000 10000000” (may also be referred to as RSFP 0 since the subframe at position 0 is the restricted subframe). Based on the above assumptions, the alignment between subframe patterns and three PCCH configurations will now be considered.
Table 1 below shows paging occasions (PO) in subframes and the positions of restricted subframes (RSFP) which fit into the paging occasions. The value of nB is set to 64, 32 and 16 radio frames in the first, second and third configurations, respectively. In all the configurations, the default paging cycle is 64 radio frames (640 milliseconds (ms)). In Conf 1, nB is set to 64 (same as the default paging cycle), so there is one paging occasion in each radio frame. In Conf 2, nB is set to 32 (one half of the default paging cycle), resulting in one paging occasion each two radio frames. In Conf 3, nB is set to 16 (one fourth of the default paging cycle), resulting in one paging occasion every four radio frames. In this example, the paging occasions always occur in subframe 9 (subframes are numbered 0-9) based on the configuration of nB and the default paging cycle.
To determine which restricted subframe pattern will correspond with the paging occasion subframe, a modulo 8 calculation is performed (the restricted subframe pattern repeats every 8 bits). RSFP is calculated as modulo 8 of paging occasion in subframes. It can be seen that the paging occasions fit into only a limited number of subframe patterns. In the second configuration, for example, paging occasions fit into only the two subframe patterns RSFP 1 (“01000000 01000000 . . . ”) and RSFP 5 (“00000100 00000100 . . . ”). It can thus be seen that, with a certain combination of PCCH configuration and subframe patterns, the paging occasions might not be protected from interference.
If RSFP 5 is configured by the victim cell, it may be preferable for the UE to read paging in subframe 29, 69, 109, . . . not in subframe 9, 49, 89, . . . for more reliable paging detection. It may be preferable to avoid a case where the network configures other subframe patterns that are not included in Table 1, for example RSFP of 2. In such a case, all of the paging occasions may be in normal subframes and may suffer from interference, and the UE may fail to detect paging messages. It may thus be observed that, with certain combinations of PCCH configuration and subframe pattern, the paging occasions may never be protected from interference.
In accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure, the nB parameter of the victim cell may be configured in dependence upon the restricted subframe pattern of the aggressor cell, or vice versa. For example, when the nB parameter is configured to be less than or equal to T (the default paging cycle or a UE-specific paging cycle), the network can configure a subframe pattern whose restricted subframes include the paging occasions to be used by the pico cell in order to protect paging occasions from interference.
In accordance with another embodiment of the present disclosure, a UE may take the nB parameter and restricted subframe pattern into account when determining which paging occasions to monitor. For example, the UE is required to read paging occasions at least once in each default paging cycle to detect ETWS and CMAS notifications. However, the UE may determine whether paging occasions are aligned with the configured subframe pattern for a received PCCH and subframe pattern configuration. In case of misalignment, the UE may attempt to read paging in additional paging occasions. In an embodiment, the UE attempts to read paging in additional paging occasions to detect paging more reliably if the paging occasions are not aligned with the configured restricted subframe pattern.
In accordance with another embodiment of the present disclosure, the network may configure the nB parameter to 2 T or 4 T in a HetNet deployment. When the nB parameter is set to be more than T, there are more paging occasions in the paging frames, and the distribution of the paging occasions results in less likelihood of interference.
Table 2 below shows the alignment of paging occasions and positions of restricted subframes when nB is configured to be 2 T. As shown, with all of the 1/8 subframe patterns, every paging frame will include at least one paging occasion that is protected regardless of which one of the 1/8 restricted subframe patterns is used. In other words, the UE can find a paging occasion protected by a restricted subframe regardless of which one of the 1/8 subframe patterns is configured. Since the paging occasions that a UE reads in connected mode are determined by the UE implementation, more frequent paging occasions may not impact UE battery consumption.
It should be understood that restricted subframe patterns may not be 1/8 patterns. For example, a 1/10 pattern (where the restricted subframe pattern repeats every 10 bits) may be configured. Similar to the previous examples, careful selection of the nB parameter and the subframe pattern may result in less interference of the paging occasions used by a victim cell.
Table 3 below shows 1/10 subframe patterns (one restricted subframe out of 10 subframes) aligned to the paging occasions in two different configurations in FDD. In the first configuration, nB in the PCCH configuration is set to 4 T, and in the second configuration, nB is set to T. As shown, four subframe patterns can be used with nB set to 4 T. However, only one subframe pattern is available when nB is set to T. Having only one subframe pattern in an entire network may be too restrictive. By setting nB to 2 T or 4 T, more subframe patterns are available to protect paging occasions. The above is also applicable to TDD.
If the UE finds that the PCCH configuration and the subframe pattern do not align, the UE can decide to read more than the system information change and the ETWS/CMAS monitoring requirements to ensure reliable detection.
These concepts can be implemented by the changes to the current RRC specification (3GPP TS 36.331) as shown in an embodiment of the disclosure below.
22.214.171.124 Time domain measurement resource restriction for serving cell (Alternative 1)
The UE shall:
1> if the received measSubframePatternPCell is set to release:
Alternatively, additional description with regard to nB configuration can be added to the existing ASN.1 definition as shown in an embodiment of the disclosure below.
Additional discussion will now be provided regarding an issue with the handling of measSubframePattemConfigNeigh upon reestablishment.
Upon initialization of RRC connection reestablishment, the UE releases the time domain measurement resource restriction for PCell (measSubframePatternPCell) and CSI estimation (csi-SubframePatternConfig), but the UE maintains (measSubframePatternConfigNeigh). The target eNB handling the reestablishment may configure measSubframePatternPCell and Sub framePatternConfig by a RRCConnectionReestablishment message if they are applicable to the UE. After the reestablishment, the eNB may also reconfigure measSubframePatternConfigNeigh by a RRCConnectionReconfiguration message if reconfiguration is required. On the other hand, in the case of a handover, the target eNB may reconfigure all three subframe patterns by one reconfiguration message (handover command).
The concepts described above may be implemented by a network element. A simplified network element is shown with regard to FIG. 6. In FIG. 6, network element 3110 includes a processor 3120 and a communications subsystem 3130, where the processor 3120 and communications subsystem 3130 cooperate to perform the methods described above.
Further, the above may be implemented by a UE. One exemplary device is described below with regard to FIG. 7. UE 3200 is typically a two-way wireless communication device having voice and data communication capabilities. UE 3200 generally has the capability to communicate with other computer systems on the Internet. Depending on the exact functionality provided, the UE may be referred to as a data messaging device, a two-way pager, a wireless e-mail device, a cellular telephone with data messaging capabilities, a wireless Internet appliance, a wireless device, a mobile device, or a data communication device, as examples.
Where UE 3200 is enabled for two-way communication, it may incorporate a communication subsystem 3211, including a receiver 3212 and a transmitter 3214, as well as associated components such as one or more antenna elements 3216 and 3218, local oscillators (LOs) 3213, and a processing module such as a digital signal processor (DSP) 3220. As will be apparent to those skilled in the field of communications, the particular design of the communication subsystem 3211 will be dependent upon the communication network in which the device is intended to operate.
Network access requirements will also vary depending upon the type of network 3219. In some networks network access is associated with a subscriber or user of UE 3200. A UE may require a removable user identity module (RUIM) or a subscriber identity module (SIM) card in order to operate on a network. The SIM/RUIM interface 3244 is normally similar to a card-slot into which a SIM/RUIM card can be inserted and ejected. The SIM/RUIM card can have memory and hold many key configurations 3251, and other information 3253 such as identification, and subscriber related information.
When required network registration or activation procedures have been completed, UE 3200 may send and receive communication signals over the network 3219. As illustrated in FIG. 7, network 3219 can consist of multiple base stations communicating with the UE.
Signals received by antenna 3216 through communication network 3219 are input to receiver 3212, which may perform such common receiver functions as signal amplification, frequency down conversion, filtering, channel selection and the like. Analog to digital (A/D) conversion of a received signal allows more complex communication functions such as demodulation and decoding to be performed in the DSP 3220. In a similar manner, signals to be transmitted are processed, including modulation and encoding for example, by DSP 3220 and input to transmitter 3214 for digital to analog (D/A) conversion, frequency up conversion, filtering, amplification and transmission over the communication network 3219 via antenna 3218. DSP 3220 not only processes communication signals, but also provides for receiver and transmitter control. For example, the gains applied to communication signals in receiver 3212 and transmitter 3214 may be adaptively controlled through automatic gain control algorithms implemented in DSP 3220.
UE 3200 generally includes a processor 3238 which controls the overall operation of the device. Communication functions, including data and voice communications, are performed through communication subsystem 3211. Processor 3238 also interacts with further device subsystems such as the display 3222, flash memory 3224, random access memory (RAM) 3226, auxiliary input/output (I/O) subsystems 3228, serial port 3230, one or more keyboards or keypads 3232, speaker 3234, microphone 3236, other communication subsystem 3240 such as a short-range communications subsystem and any other device subsystems generally designated as 3242. Serial port 3230 could include a USB port or other port known to those in the art.
Some of the subsystems shown in FIG. 7 perform communication-related functions, whereas other subsystems may provide “resident” or on-device functions. Notably, some subsystems, such as keyboard 3232 and display 3222, for example, may be used for both communication-related functions, such as entering a text message for transmission over a communication network, and device-resident functions such as a calculator or task list.
Operating system software used by the processor 3238 may be stored in a persistent store such as flash memory 3224, which may instead be a read-only memory (ROM) or similar storage element (not shown). Those skilled in the art will appreciate that the operating system, specific device applications, or parts thereof, may be temporarily loaded into a volatile memory such as RAM 3226. Received communication signals may also be stored in RAM 3226.
As shown, flash memory 3224 can be segregated into different areas for both computer programs 3258 and program data storage 3250, 3252, 3254 and 3256. These different storage types indicate that each program can allocate a portion of flash memory 3224 for their own data storage requirements. Processor 3238, in addition to its operating system functions, may enable execution of software applications on the UE. A predetermined set of applications that control basic operations, including at least data and voice communication applications for example, will normally be installed on UE 3200 during manufacturing. Other applications could be installed subsequently or dynamically.
Applications and software may be stored on any computer readable storage medium. The computer readable storage medium may be a tangible or in transitory/non-transitory medium such as optical (e.g., CD, DVD, etc.), magnetic (e.g., tape) or other memory known in the art.
One software application may be a personal information manager (PIM) application having the ability to organize and manage data items relating to the user of the UE such as, but not limited to, e-mail, calendar events, voice mails, appointments, and task items. Naturally, one or more memory stores may be available on the UE to facilitate storage of PIM data items. Such PIM application may have the ability to send and receive data items, via the wireless network 3219. Further applications may also be loaded onto the UE 3200 through the network 3219, an auxiliary I/O subsystem 3228, serial port 3230, short-range communications subsystem 3240 or any other suitable subsystem 3242, and installed by a user in the RAM 3226 or a non-volatile store (not shown) for execution by the processor 3238. Such flexibility in application installation increases the functionality of the device and may provide enhanced on-device functions, communication-related functions, or both. For example, secure communication applications may enable electronic commerce functions and other such financial transactions to be performed using the UE 3200.
In a data communication mode, a received signal such as a text message or web page download will be processed by the communication subsystem 3211 and input to the processor 3238, which may further process the received signal for output to the display 3222, or alternatively to an auxiliary I/O device 3228.
A user of UE 3200 may also compose data items such as email messages for example, using the keyboard 3232, which may be a complete alphanumeric keyboard or telephone-type keypad, among others, in conjunction with the display 3222 and possibly an auxiliary I/O device 3228. Such composed items may then be transmitted over a communication network through the communication subsystem 3211.
For voice communications, overall operation of UE 3200 is similar, except that received signals may typically be output to a speaker 3234 and signals for transmission may be generated by a microphone 3236. Alternative voice or audio I/O subsystems, such as a voice message recording subsystem, may also be implemented on UE 3200. Although voice or audio signal output is preferably accomplished primarily through the speaker 3234, display 3222 may also be used to provide an indication of the identity of a calling party, the duration of a voice call, or other voice call related information for example.
Serial port 3230 in FIG. 7 may normally be implemented in a personal digital assistant (PDA)-type UE for which synchronization with a user's desktop computer (not shown) may be desirable, but is an optional device component. Such a port 3230 may enable a user to set preferences through an external device or software application and may extend the capabilities of UE 3200 by providing for information or software downloads to UE 3200 other than through a wireless communication network. The alternate download path may for example be used to load an encryption key onto the device through a direct and thus reliable and trusted connection to thereby enable secure device communication. As will be appreciated by those skilled in the art, serial port 3230 can further be used to connect the UE to a computer to act as a modem.
Other communications subsystems 3240, such as a short-range communications subsystem, is a further optional component which may provide for communication between UE 3200 and different systems or devices, which need not necessarily be similar devices. For example, the subsystem 3240 may include an infrared device and associated circuits and components or a Bluetooth™ communication module to provide for communication with similarly enabled systems and devices. Subsystem 3240 may further include non-cellular communications such as WiFi or WiMAX.
The UE and other components described above might include a processing component that is capable of executing instructions related to the actions described above. FIG. 8 illustrates an example of a system 3300 that includes a processing component 3310 suitable for implementing one or more embodiments disclosed herein. The processing component 3310 may be substantially similar to the processor 3120 of FIG. 6 and/or the processor 3238 of FIG. 7.
In addition to the processor 3310 (which may be referred to as a central processor unit or CPU), the system 3300 might include network connectivity devices 3320, random access memory (RAM) 3330, read only memory (ROM) 3340, secondary storage 3350, and input/output (I/O) devices 3360. These components might communicate with one another via a bus 3370. In some cases, some of these components may not be present or may be combined in various combinations with one another or with other components not shown. These components might be located in a single physical entity or in more than one physical entity. Any actions described herein as being taken by the processor 3310 might be taken by the processor 3310 alone or by the processor 3310 in conjunction with one or more components shown or not shown in the drawing, such as a digital signal processor (DSP) 3380. Although the DSP 3380 is shown as a separate component, the DSP 3380 might be incorporated into the processor 3310.
The processor 3310 executes instructions, codes, computer programs, or scripts that it might access from the network connectivity devices 3320, RAM 3330, ROM 3340, or secondary storage 3350 (which might include various disk-based systems such as hard disk, floppy disk, or optical disk). While only one CPU 3310 is shown, multiple processors may be present. Thus, while instructions may be discussed as being executed by a processor, the instructions may be executed simultaneously, serially, or otherwise by one or multiple processors. The processor 3310 may be implemented as one or more CPU chips.
The network connectivity devices 3320 may take the form of modems, modem banks, Ethernet devices, universal serial bus (USB) interface devices, serial interfaces, token ring devices, fiber distributed data interface (FDDI) devices, wireless local area network (WLAN) devices, radio transceiver devices such as code division multiple access (CDMA) devices, global system for mobile communications (GSM) radio transceiver devices, universal mobile telecommunications system (UMTS) radio transceiver devices, long term evolution (LTE) radio transceiver devices, worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) devices, and/or other well-known devices for connecting to networks. These network connectivity devices 3320 may enable the processor 3310 to communicate with the Internet or one or more telecommunications networks or other networks from which the processor 3310 might receive information or to which the processor 3310 might output information. The network connectivity devices 3320 might also include one or more transceiver components 3325 capable of transmitting and/or receiving data wirelessly.
The RAM 3330 might be used to store volatile data and perhaps to store instructions that are executed by the processor 3310. The ROM 3340 is a non-volatile memory device that typically has a smaller memory capacity than the memory capacity of the secondary storage 3350. ROM 3340 might be used to store instructions and perhaps data that are read during execution of the instructions. Access to both RAM 3330 and ROM 3340 is typically faster than to secondary storage 3350. The secondary storage 3350 is typically comprised of one or more disk drives or tape drives and might be used for non-volatile storage of data or as an over-flow data storage device if RAM 3330 is not large enough to hold all working data. Secondary storage 3350 may be used to store programs that are loaded into RAM 3330 when such programs are selected for execution.
The I/O devices 3360 may include liquid crystal displays (LCDs), touch screen displays, keyboards, keypads, switches, dials, mice, track balls, voice recognizers, card readers, paper tape readers, printers, video monitors, or other well-known input/output devices. Also, the transceiver 3325 might be considered to be a component of the I/O devices 3360 instead of or in addition to being a component of the network connectivity devices 3320.
In an implementation, a method is provided for operating a UE in a wireless communications network. The method comprises using, by the UE, a frequency parameter of paging frames and a restricted subframe pattern to determine one or more paging frames and occasions to monitor.
In another implementation, a UE is provided. The UE comprises a processor configured such that the UE uses a frequency parameter of paging frames and a restricted subframe pattern to determine one or more paging frames and occasions to monitor.
In another implementation, a method is provided for operating a network element in a wireless communications network. The method comprises configuring, by the network element, a frequency parameter of paging frames for a cell in which the network element is present, such that the frequency parameter is configured based on a restricted subframe pattern in a signal transmitted in a victim cell.
In another implementation, a network element is provided. The network element comprises a processor configured such that the network element configures a frequency parameter of paging frames for a cell in which the network element is present, such that the frequency parameter is configured based on a restricted subframe pattern in a signal transmitted in a victim cell.
In another implementation, a method is provided for operating a UE in a wireless heterogeneous network including a first network element and a second network element. The method comprises receiving, by the UE, from the second network element, a pattern of network subframes associated with the first network element. The method further comprises reading, by the UE, a paging message in one of a plurality of selected subframes, wherein the interval of the selected subframes is based on a paging frequency parameter, and wherein selected transmissions of the second network element correspond with selected subframes of the pattern of network subframes associated with the first network element.
The following are incorporated herein by reference for all purposes: 3GPP TS 36.213 version 10.3.0, 3GPP TS 36.300 version 10.5.0, 3GPP TS 36.304 version 10.3.0, 3GPP TS 36.321 version 10.3.0, and 3GPP TS 36.331 version 10.3.0.
The present disclosure provides illustrative implementations of one or more embodiments. The disclosure should in no way be limited to the illustrative implementations, drawings, and techniques illustrated below, including the exemplary designs and implementations illustrated and described herein, but may be modified within the scope of the appended claims along with their full scope of equivalents. A person of skill in the relevant art will recognized that the disclosed systems and/or methods may be implemented using any number of techniques, whether currently known or in existence. Embodiments are described herein in the context of an LTE wireless network or system, but can be adapted for other wireless networks or systems.
This written description may enable those skilled in the art to make and use embodiments having alternative elements that likewise correspond to the elements of the techniques of this application. The intended scope of the techniques of this application thus includes other structures, systems or methods that do not differ from the techniques of this application as described herein, and further includes other structures, systems or methods with insubstantial differences from the techniques of this application as described herein.
While several embodiments have been provided in the present disclosure, it should be understood that the disclosed systems and methods may be embodied in many other specific forms without departing from the scope of the present disclosure. The present examples are to be considered as illustrative and not restrictive, and the intention is not to be limited to the details given herein. For example, the various elements or components may be combined or integrated in another system or certain features may be omitted, or not implemented.
Also, techniques, systems, subsystems and methods described and illustrated in the various embodiments as discrete or separate may be combined or integrated with other systems, modules, techniques, or methods without departing from the scope of the present disclosure. Other items shown or discussed as coupled or directly coupled or communicating with each other may be indirectly coupled or communicating through some interface, device, or intermediate component, whether electrically, mechanically, or otherwise. Other examples of changes, substitutions, and alterations are ascertainable by one skilled in the art and could be made without departing from the spirit and scope disclosed herein.