Indexed on: 06 Jan '16Published on: 06 Jan '16Published in: PloS one
The cell cycle inhibitor p21CDKN1A was previously found to interact directly with DNA nick-sensor poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) and to promote base excision repair (BER). However, the molecular mechanism responsible for this BER-related association of p21 with PARP-1 remains to be clarified. In this study we investigate the capability of p21 to influence PARP-1 binding to DNA repair intermediates in a reconstituted BER system in vitro. Using model photoreactive BER substrates containing single-strand breaks, we found that full-length recombinant GST-tagged p21 but not a C-terminal domain truncated form of p21 was able to stimulate the PARP-1 binding to BER intermediates with no significant influence on the catalytic activity of PARP-1. In addition, we investigate whether the activation of PARP-1 through poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) synthesis, is required for its interaction with p21. We have found that in human fibroblasts and in HeLa cells treated with the DNA alkylating agent N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), the interaction of p21 with PARP-1 was greatly dependent on PAR synthesis. In fact, an anti-PAR antibody was able to co-immunoprecipitate p21 and PARP-1 from extracts of MNNG-treated cells, while blocking PAR synthesis with the PARP-1 inhibitor Olaparib, drastically reduced the amount of p21 co-immunoprecipitated by a PARP-1 antibody. Our results provide the first evidence that p21 can stimulate the binding of PARP-1 to DNA repair intermediates, and that this cooperation requires PAR synthesis.