Indexed on: 07 Dec '18Published on: 07 Dec '18Published in: Ecology and Evolution
We test for spatial and climatic patterns of diversification in the Orchidaceae, an angiosperm family characterized by high levels of species diversity and rarity. Globally, does orchid diversity correlate with land area? In Australia, does diversity correlate with herbarium collecting effort, range size, or climate niche breadth? Where are Australia's orchids distributed spatially, in protected areas, and in climate space? Global, then Australia. We compared orchid diversity with land area for continents and recognized orchid diversity hotspots. Then, we used cleaned herbarium records to compare collecting effort (for Australian Orchidaceae vs. all other plant families, and also among orchid genera). Spatial and climate distributions were mapped to determine orchids' coverage in the protected area network, range sizes, and niche breadths. Globally, orchid diversity does not correlate with land area (depauperate regions are the subantarctic: 10 species, and northern North America: 394 species). Australian herbarium records and collecting effort generally reflect orchid species diversity (1,583 spp.), range sizes, and niche breadths. Orchids are restricted to 13% of Australia's landmass with 211 species absent from any protected areas. Species richness is the greatest in three biomes with high general biodiversity: Temperate (especially southwest and southeast Australia), Tropical, and Subtropical (coastal northern Queensland). Absence from the Desert is consistent with our realized climate niche-orchids avoid high temperature/low rainfall environments. Orchids have narrower range sizes than nonorchid species. Highly diverse orchid genera have narrower rainfall breadths than less diverse genera. Herbarium data are adequate for testing hypotheses about Australian orchids. Distribution is likely driven by environmental factors. In contrast, diversification did not correlate with increases in range size, rainfall, or temperature breadths, suggesting speciation does not occur via invasion and local adaptation to new habitats. Instead, diversification may rely on access to extensive obligate symbioses with mycorrhizae and/or pollinators.