Indexed on: 28 Jan '04Published on: 28 Jan '04Published in: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
To overcome the limitations of injection administration to vaccinate neonatal piglets against diarrheal disease, an oral vaccine needs to be developed. Enteric microspheres of oral vaccines were developed by a co-spray drying process based on formalin-inactivated enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli antigens with various encapsulating materials. The encapsulating efficiencies of ECN7m, ECN14m and ECN22m (vaccine microsphere formulations) tested by extraction procedure are high, more than 85%. To assess enteric characteristics, an in vitro dissolution test was performed with microspheres. Formulations with ethylcellulose ECN14m and ECN22m allow controlled release in a neutral or basic environment and resisted acid damage. In all cases, 95% of the E. coli protein was released within 2 h at pH 6.8-7, but there was no release at pH 1.5-2. However, ECN7m was less acid-resistant and had lower release at low pH. In animal immunization tests, oral immunization with microspheres of formulations ECN14 and ECN22m effectively evoked both systemic IgG and mucosal IgA responses against E. coli whole cell antigens in mice. In the mice challenge test, orally administrable ECNm14 (12 mg) or ECN22m (12.6 mg) vaccine (i.e., encapsulating 3.0x10(9) cfu inactive bacterial mass) provided good protection from infection in animals.