Optimizing Amikacin Dosage in Pediatrics Based on Population Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Modeling.

Research paper by Saeed S Alqahtani, Manal M Abouelkheir, Abdullah A Alsultan, Yasmine Y Elsharawy, Aljawharah A Alkoraishi, Reem R Osman, Wael W Mansy

Indexed on: 24 Mar '18Published on: 24 Mar '18Published in: Pediatric Drugs


Our objective was to determine the population pharmacokinetic parameters of amikacin in pediatric patients to contribute to the future development of a revised optimum dose and population-specific dosing regimens. We performed a retrospective chart review in non-critical pediatric patients (aged 1-12 years) who received amikacin for suspected or proven Gram-negative infection at a university hospital. The population pharmacokinetic models were developed using Monolix 4.4. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) simulations were performed to explore the ability of different dosage regimens to achieve the pharmacodynamic targets. The analysis included 134 amikacin plasma concentrations from 67 patients with a mean ± standard deviation age of 4.1 ± 3.9 years and bodyweight of 15 ± 8.4 kg. The patients received an amikacin total daily dose (TDD) of 23 ± 7.3 mg/kg, which resulted in peak and trough concentrations of 20.65 ± 7.6 and 2.4 ± 1.7 mg/l, respectively. The estimated pharmacokinetic parameters for amikacin were 1.2 l/h and 6.5 l for total body clearance (CL) and the volume of distribution (V), respectively. Dosing simulations showed that the standard dosing regimen (15 mg/kg/day) of amikacin achieved the PK/PD target of peak serum concentration (C)/minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≥ 8 for an MIC of 2 mg/l; higher doses were required to achieve higher MIC values. The simulation results indicated that amikacin 20 mg/kg once daily provided a higher probability of target attainment with lower toxicity than dosing three times daily. In addition, combination therapy is recommended for pathogens with an MIC of ≥ 8 mg/l.