On the energy conservation and critical velocities for the propagation of a “steady-shock” wave in a bar made of cellular material

Research paper by Li-Li Wang, Li-Ming Yang, Yuan-Yuan Ding

Indexed on: 18 Apr '13Published on: 18 Apr '13Published in: Acta Mechanica Sinica


The propagation of shock waves in a cellular bar is systematically studied in the framework of continuum solids by adopting two idealized material models, viz. the dynamic rigid, perfectly plastic, locking (D-R-PP-L) model and the dynamic rigid, linear hardening plastic, locking (D-R-LHP-L) model, both considering the effects of strain-rate on the material properties. The shock wave speed relevant to these two models is derived. Consider the case of a bar made of one of such material with initial length L0 and initial velocity vi impinging onto a rigid target. The variations of the stress, strain, particle velocity, specific internal energy across the shock wave and the cease distance of shock wave are all determined analytically. In particular the “energy conservation condition” and the “kinematic existence condition” as proposed by Tan et al. (2005) is re-examined, showing that the “energy conservation condition” and the consequent “critical velocity”, i.e. the shock can only be generated and sustained in R-PP-L bars when the impact velocity is above this critical velocity, is incorrect. Instead, with elastic deformation, strain-hardening and strain-rate sensitivity of the cellular materials being considered, it is appropriate to redefine a first and a second critical impact velocity for the existence and propagation of shock waves in cellular solids. Starting from the basic relations for shock wave propagating in D-R-LHP-L cellular materials, a new method for inversely determining the dynamic stress-strain curve for cellular materials is proposed. By using e.g. a combination of Taylor bar and Hopkinson pressure bar impact experimental technique, the dynamic stress-strain curve of aluminum foam could be determined. Finally, it is demonstrated that this new formulation of shock theory in this one-dimensional stress state can be generalized to shocks in a one-dimensional strain state, i.e. for the case of plate impact on cellular materials, by simply making proper replacements of the elastic and plastic constants.