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On the Closed Graph Theorem and the Open Mapping Theorem

Research paper by Henri Bourlès

Indexed on: 20 Nov '14Published on: 20 Nov '14Published in: Mathematics - Functional Analysis



Abstract

Let $E,F$ be two topological spaces and $u:E\rightarrow F$ be a map. \ If $F$ is Haudorff and $u$ is continuous, then its graph is closed. \ \ The Closed Graph Theorem establishes the converse when $E$ and $F$ are suitable objects of topological algebra, and more specifically topological groups, topological vector spaces (TVS's) or locally vector spaces (LCS's) of a special type. The Open Mapping Theorem, also called the Banach-Schauder theorem, states that under suitable conditions on $E$ and $F,$ if $ v:F\rightarrow E$ is a continuous linear surjective map, it is open. \ When the Open Mapping Theorem holds true for $v,$ so does the Closed Graph Theorem for $u.$ \ The converse is also valid in most cases, but there are exceptions. \ This point is clarified. Some of the most important versions of the Closed Graph Theorem and of the Open Mapping Theorem are stated without proof but with the detailed reference.